Adamu noEva

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UAdam ( ngesiHeberu :  Isi-Aramu : ܐܕܡ; Isi-Arabhu: آدَم‎  ; Greek  ; Latin no- EvaIsi-Arabhu: حَوَّاء‎  ; Greek  ; Latin  ; ܚܰܘܳܐ Syriac : ܚܰܘܳܐ i- ḥawâ : ḥawâ) ngokwenganekwane yendalo yezinkolo zika -Abrahama,kwakuyindoda nowesifazane bokuqala. Zisemqoka enkolelweni yokuthi isintu empeleni siwumndeni owodwa, nawo wonke umuntu wehla kubokhokho ababili bokuqala.Ziphinde zinikeze isisekelo sezimfundiso zokuwa komuntu nesono sokuqala okuyizinkolelo ezibalulekile ebuKristwini, yize zingabanjwanga ebuJudeni noma e- Islam .

Encwadini kaGenesise we- Hebrew Bible, izahluko 1 kuya ku-5, kunezindaba ezimbili zokudalwa ezinemibono emibili ehlukene. Kowokuqala, u-Adamu no-Eva ababizwa ngamagama.Esikhundleni salokho, uNkulunkulu wadala isintu ngomfanekiso kaNkulunkulu futhi wabayala ukuthi bande futhi babe ngabaphathi bakho konke okunye uNkulunkulu akwenzile. Ekulandiseni kwesibili, uNkulunkulu wenza u-Adamu ngothuli futhi wambeka eNsimini yase-Edene .U-Adam utshelwa ukuthi angadla ngokukhululeka kuyo yonke imithi engadini, ngaphandle kwesihlahla sokwazi okuhle nokubi . Ngemuva kwalokho, u- Eva wenziwa ngolunye lwezimbambo zika-Adamu ukuze abe ngumngane wakhe.Ziyakwazi abangenacala unembarrassed mayelana yabo ubunqunu.Kodwa-ke, inyoka incenga u-Eva ukuba adle isithelo somuthi owenqatshelwe, bese enikeza u-Adamu esinye salezo zithelo.Lezi zenzo zibanikeza ulwazi olwengeziwe, kepha lubanikeza amandla okudala imiqondo engemihle neyonakalisayo efana nehlazo nobubi.Kamuva uNkulunkulu uqalekisa inyoka nomhlabathi.UNkulunkulu ngokwesiprofetho utshela owesifazane nendoda ukuthi iyoba yini imiphumela yesono sabo sokungalaleli uNkulunkulu. Bese ebaxosha ensimini yase-Edene.

Inganekwane yacaciselwa kabanzi emasikweni akamuva ka-Abraham, futhi yahlaziywa kabanzi yizazi zebhayibheli zesimanje.Ukuhunyushwa nezinkolelo maqondana no-Adamu no-Eva kanye nendaba ezungeze kubo iyahlukahluka kuzo zonke izinkolo namahlelo; isibonelo, inguqulo yamaSulumane yale ndaba ithi u-Adam no-Eva babephethe ngokulinganayo ngezono zabo ze- hubris, esikhundleni sokuthi u-Eva abe ngowokuqala ongathembekile.Indaba ka-Adam no-Eva ivame ukuvezwa kwezobuciko, futhi ibe nomthelela obalulekile ezincwadini nasezinkondlweni.

Indaba yokuwa kuka-Adamu ivame ukubhekwa njengenganekwane. Okutholakele kuzakhi zofuzo zabantu, ikakhulukazi lezo eziphathelene no- Y-chromosomal Adam no- Eva weMitochondrial, kukhombisa ukuthi i-pair yokuqala "ka-Adam no-Eva" yabantu ayikaze ibe khona.

Ukulandisa kweBhayibheli lesiHeberu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukudalwa kuka-Adam okuvezwe ophahleni lweSistine Chapel nguMichelangelo, 1508-1512

Izahluko zokuqala zencwadi kaGenesise zinikeza umlando oyinganekwane wokungena kobubi emhlabeni. UNkulunkulu ubeka owesilisa nowesifazane bokuqala (u-Adamu no-Eva) eNsimini yakhe yase-Edene, lapho bexoshwe khona; kulandela ukubulala kokuqala, nesinqumo sikaNkulunkulu sokubhubhisa umhlaba futhi asindise uNowa olungileyo kanye namadodana akhe kuphela; ubuntu obusha bese buyehla kulokhu futhi busabalale umhlaba wonke, kepha noma ngabe umhlaba omusha unesono njengakudala, uNkulunkulu unqume ukuthi ngeke aphinde abhubhise umhlaba ngozamcolo, kanti Umlando uphela ngoTerah, ubaba ka-Abrahama, kusukela ozokwehla abantu bakaNkulunkulu abakhethiwe, ama -Israyeli. [6] Akekho u-Adam noma u-Eva okukhulunywa ngaye kwenye indawo emibhalweni yesiHeberu ngaphandle kohlu olulodwa luka-Adam ohlwini lozalo ku- 1 IziKronike 1: 1, [7] okuphakamisa ukuthi yize indaba yabo yaqala yanikelwa endabeni yamaJuda, kodwa okuncane okufana nakho. [8]

Ukulandisa kwendalo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

U-Adamu no-Eva bangowesilisa nowesifazane wokuqala waseBhayibhelini.Igama lika-Adamu livela kuqala kuGenesise 1 ngomqondo ohlangene, "njengesintu"; emuva kwalokho kuGenesise 2-3 kuphethe umunci ocacile u- ha, olingana nesiNgisi "the", okukhombisa ukuthi lona "yindoda". Kulezi zahluko uNkulunkulu wenza imfashini "umuntu" ( ha adam ) wasemhlabeni ( adamah ), uphefumulela impilo emakhaleni akhe, futhi umenze umbheki phezu kwendalo. Ngokulandelayo uNkulunkulu udalela indoda i- ezer kenegdo, "umsizi ohambelana naye", ohlangothini noma ubambo lwayo.Igama "ubambo" liyipun ngesiSumeriya, njengegama elithi ti kusho zombili "ubambo" kanye "nokuphila". Ubizwa ngokuthi ishsha, "owesifazane", ngoba, umbhalo uthi, ubunjwe ngo-ish, "indoda".Indoda imamukela ngenjabulo, kanti umfundi utshelwa ukuthi kusuka kulo mzuzu indoda izoshiya abazali bayo "banamathele" kowesifazane, laba ababili baba nyamanye.

Ukuwa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Owesilisa nowesifazane bokuqala basensimini kaNkulunkulu yase-Edene, lapho yonke indalo iyimifino futhi kungekho budlova.Bavunyelwe ukuthi badle izithelo zazo zonke izihlahla ngaphandle kwesisodwa, isihlahla sokwazi okuhle nokubi.Owesifazane ulingwa yinyoka ekhulumayo ukuba adle isithelo esenqatshelwe, bese enika owesilisa, naye adle.(Ngokuphikisana nenganekwane edumile akakhohlisi indoda, okubonakala sengathi yayikhona lapho kuhlangana nenyoka).UNkulunkulu uqalekisa bobathathu, owesilisa asebenze kanzima impilo yonke elandelwa ukufa, owesifazane abhekane nobuhlungu bokubeletha nokuzithoba kumyeni wakhe, nenyoka ihambe ngesisu sayo ihlupheke ubutha bobabili indoda owesifazane.UNkulunkulu wabe ezigqokisa nobunqunu bendodakazi kowesilisa kusiya kowesifazana, abaye baba unkulunkulu-like ngokuqondene nokwazi okuhle nokubi, abese uxosha kubo kusukela engadini funa bedla isithelo somuthi yesibili, umuthi wokuphila, aphile kuze kube phakade.

Ukuwa kuka-Adam no-Eva njengoba kuboniswe ophahleni lweSistine Chapel

Ukuxoshwa e-Edene[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Indaba iyaqhubeka kuGenesise 3 ngomlando "wokuxoshwa e-Edene". A ifomu ukuhlaziywa kaGenesise 3 lembula ukuthi le ngxenye indaba kungenziwa kwachazwa ngokuthi mfanekiso noma "ukuhlakanipha tale" in the isiko ngokuhlakanipha . Amakheli asankondlo asesahlukweni angawohlobo lokuhlakanipha olucatshangelwayo olubuza ukuphikisana namaqiniso anzima okuphila. Lesi sici sinqunywa ngefomethi yokulandisa, izilungiselelo, nangesakhiwo . Uhlobo lukaGenesise 3 nalo lubunjwe ngamagama alo, kusetshenziswa ama-puns ahlukahlukene kanye nokufakwa kabili .

Inzalo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UGenesise 4 ulandisa ngempilo engaphandle kwensimu, kufaka phakathi ukuzalwa kwezingane zokuqala zika-Adamu no-Eva uKayini no-Abela nendaba yokubulawa kokuqala. Indodana yesithathu, uSeti, izalwa u-Adamu no-Eva, kanti u-Adam "wayenamanye amadodana namadodakazi" ( Genesis 5:4 ).UGenesise 5 ubala izinzalo zika-Adamu kusukela kuSeti kuye kuNowa ngeminyaka yazo lapho kuzalwa amadodana abo okuqala kanye neminyaka yabo ekufeni. Iminyaka ka-Adam ekufeni inikezwa njengeminyaka eyi-930. Ngokwe- Book of Jubilees, uKayini washada nodadewabo u- Awan, indodakazi ka-Adam no-Eve. [1]

Umlando wombhalo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

IPrimeval History yakha izahluko zokuqala zeTorah, izincwadi ezinhlanu ezakha umlando wemvelaphi yakwa-Israyeli. Lokhu kufinyelele entweni efana nesimo sayo samanje ngekhulu lesi-5 BCE, [30] kepha uGenesise 1-11 ukhombisa ubudlelwano obuncane kulo lonke iBhayibheli: [31] ngokwesibonelo, amagama ezinhlamvu zalo kanye nokuma kwalo - u-Adam (indoda) no-Eve (impilo), iZwe leNodi ("Ukuzulazula"), njalonjalo - kungokomfanekiso kunokuba kube ngokoqobo, futhi cishe akekho noyedwa umuntu, izindawo nezindaba okukhulunywe ngazo kuyo ezake zahlangatshezwa kwenye indawo.Lokhu kuholele ekutheni izifundiswa zicabange ukuthi uMlando wakha ukwakheka okwenziwe sekwedlule isikhathi okunamathiselwe kuGenesise nasePentateuch ukuze kusetshenziswe njengesingeniso.Ukuthi isikhathi sempikiswano sekudlule isikhathi kangakanani: kwesinye isikhathi ngokweqile yilabo abakubona kungumkhiqizo wesikhathi samaGreki, lapho kungenzeki ukuthi kube ngaphambi kwamashumi eminyaka okuqala ekhulu lesi-4 BCE; ngakolunye uhlangothi umthombo weYahwist ukhishwe ezinye izazi, ikakhulukazi uJohn Van Seters, esikhathini sangaphambi kokufika kwasePheresiya (ngekhulu lesi-6 BCE) ngokunembile ngoba iPrimeval History iqukethe ithonya eliningi laseBabiloni ngendlela yenganekwane .[Note 1] Umlando wePrimeval udonsela "emithonjeni" emibili ehlukile, umthombo wobupristi futhi kwesinye isikhathi obizwa ngokuthi ngumthombo weYahwist futhi kwesinye isikhathi umane athi "ongewona owabaPristi"; ngenhloso yokuxoxa ngo-Adam no-Eva eNcwadini kaGenesise amagama athi "okungewona owabaPristi" kanye no- "Yahwist" angathathwa njengokushintshana.

Amasiko ka-Abrahama[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UbuJuda[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Kwabuye kwaziwa ebuJudeni basendulo ukuthi kukhona ama-akhawunti amabili ahlukene ngokudalwa komuntu. I-akhawunti yokuqala ithi "owesilisa nowesifazane [uNkulunkulu] wabadala", okusho ukuthi kudalwa ngasikhathi sinye, kanti i-akhawunti yesibili ithi uNkulunkulu wadala u-Eva ngemuva kokudalwa kuka-Adam. IMidrash Rabbah - UGenesise VIII: 1 ubuyisene nalaba ababili ngokuthi uGenesise wokuqala, "wabadala owesilisa nowesifazane", kukhombisa ukuthi uNkulunkulu ekuqaleni wadala u-Adamu njenge- hermaphrodite, emzimbeni nangokomoya bobabili owesilisa nowesifazane, ngaphambi kokudala izidalwa ezihlukene zika-Adamu no-Eva. Okunye Orabi abangela Eva kutsi lona wesifazane we-akhawunti yokuqala futhi babe abantu ezimbili ezihlukene, inhlalakahle lokuqala ezikhonjwe njengoba Lilith, sibalo kwenye indawo echazwe njengo idemoni ebusuku.

Ngokwenkolelo yendabuko yamaJuda, u-Adam no-Eva bangcwatshwa eMgedeni waseMachpelah, eHebron .

Genesis 2:7 "uNkulunkulu uphefumulela emakhaleni omuntu bese eba nefesh hayya ", okukhombisa okufana negama lesiNgisi elithi "being", ngomqondo womzimba womzimba okwazi ukuphila; umqondo wokuthi " umphefumulo " ngomqondo wanamuhla, wawungekho emcabangweni wesiHeberu kwaze kwaba cishe ngekhulu lesi-2 BC, lapho umqondo wokuvuka komzimba uthola ukuthandwa. [2]

UbuKristu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Adamu no-Eva, kanye (female) inyoka (ngokuvamile utholakala njengoba Lilith ) emnyango Notre Dame Cathedral Paris

Abanye obaba bokuqala besonto lobuKristu babamba u-Eva enesibopho sokuwa kwendoda nabo bonke abesifazane abalandela ukuba babe yizoni zokuqala ngoba u-Eva walinga u-Adamu ukuthi enze lo mkhuba. "Wena uyisango likadeveli" uTertullian watshela abafundi bakhe besifazane, wabe eseqhubeka echaza ukuthi babenecala lokufa kukaKristu: "Ngenxa yehlane lakho [okungukuthi, isijeziso sesono, okuwukuthi, ukufa], ngisho neNdodana kukaNkulunkulu kwakufanele afe. "Ngo-1486, abaseDominican Kramer noSprengler basebenzisa amapheshana afanayo eMalleus Maleficarum ("Isando Sabathakathi") ukuthethelela ukuhlukunyezwa "kwabathakathi".

Amasiko amaGnostic[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UbuKristu be-Gnostic buxoxa ngo- Adam no-Eva emibhalweni emibili eyaziwayo ekhona, okuyi- " Apocalypse of Adam " etholakala emibhalweni yeNag Hammadi nakwiTestamente lika-Adam . Ukudalwa kuka-Adam njengoProtoanthropos, indoda yasekuqaleni, kungumqondo wokugxila wale mibhalo.

Elinye isiko lamaGnostic lalithi u-Adamu no-Eva badalelwa ukusiza ukunqoba uSathane. Inyoka, esikhundleni sokuthi ikhonjwe njengoSathane, ibonwa njengeqhawe ngama- Ophites .Futhi amanye amaGnostics ayekholelwa ukuthi ukuwa kukaSathane, nokho, kwenzeka ngemuva kokudalwa kwesintu. Njengasesikweni lamaSulumane, le ndaba ithi uSathane wenqaba ukukhothamela u-Adam ngenxa yokuziqhenya. USathane wathi u-Adamu wayengaphansi kwakhe njengoba enziwa ngomlilo, kanti u-Adamu wenziwa ngobumba. Lokhu kwenqaba kwaholela ekuweni kukaSathane okulotshwe emisebenzini efana neNcwadi ka-Enoke .

AmaSulumane[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

 

Ukudweba okuvela kuManafi al-Hayawan (Izilwane Eziwusizo), okukhombisa u-Adam no-Eva. Kusuka eMaragheh e-Iran, 1294-99

Ngo Islam, u-Adamu Ādam Isi-Arabhu: آدم‎ ), indima yakhe engubaba wesintu, ibukwa ngamaSulumane ngenhlonipho. U-Eve ( Ḥawwāʼ ; isi-Arabhu : حواء ) "ungumama wesintu". [3] Ukudalwa kuka-Adam no-Eva kubhekiselwa kukho Qurʼān, yize abahumushi abehlukene beQur'an bebeka imibono eyehlukene ngendaba yangempela yendalo (iQurʼan, iSurat al-Nisaʼ, ivesi 1).

Ku -tafsir ka-al-Qummi engadini yase-Edene, indawo enjalo yayingeyona eyasemhlabeni ngokuphelele. Qurʼān, bobabili u-Adamu no-Eva badla isithelo esenqatshelwe e-Edene laseZulwini. Ngenxa yalokho, bobabili bathunyelwa eMhlabeni njengabamele bakaNkulunkulu. Umuntu ngamunye wathunyelwa esiqongweni sentaba: u-Adam e- al-Safa, no-Eve e- al-Marwah . Kuleli siko lamaSulumane, u-Adam wakhala izinsuku ezingama-40 waze waphenduka, ngemuva kwalokho uNkulunkulu wehlisa iBlack Stone, emfundisa iHajj.Ngokwe hadith eyisiprofetho, u-Adam no-Eva baphinde bahlangana ethafeni lase-`Arafat, ngaseMecca.Babenamadodana amabili ndawonye, uQabil noHabil . Kukhona nenganekwane yendodana encane, egama linguRocail, eyakha isigodlo namathuna aqukethe izithombe ezizimele ezaziphila izimpilo zabantu ngakho-ke babenephutha lokuthi banemiphefumulo.

Umqondo "wesono sokuqala" awukho e- Islam ngoba, ngokwe-Islam, u-Adamu no-Eva bathethelelwa nguNkulunkulu. Lapho uNkulunkulu eyala izingelosi ukuthi zikhothamele u-Adam, u- <i id="mwAYs">Iblīs</i> wabuza, "Kungani kufanele ngikhothamele umuntu? Ngenziwe ngomlilo omsulwa yena wenziwe ngomhlabathi. " Ukunyakaza okunenkululeko ngaphakathi kwe-Islam kubuke uNkulunkulu eyala izingelosi ukuba zikhothame phambi kuka-Adam njengokuphakanyiswa kwesintu, futhi njengendlela yokuxhasa amalungelo abantu ; abanye bakubheka njengesenzo sokukhombisa u-Adam ukuthi isitha esikhulu sabantu emhlabeni kuzoba yi-ego yabo. [4]

Ezincwadini zesiSwahili, u-Eve wadla esihlahleni esenqatshelwe, ngaleyo ndlela wabangela ukuxoshwa kwakhe, ngemuva kokulingwa ngu-Iblis.Ngemuva kwalokho, u-Adam ngeqhawe udla isithelo esenqatshelwe ukuze alandele u-Eva futhi amvikele emhlabeni.

Inkolo yeBaháʼí[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Okholweni lwamaBaháʼí, u-Adam uthathwa njengokuBonakaliswa kukaNkulunkulu kokuqala.[5]Umlando ka-Adam no-Eva uthathwa njengomfanekiso. Kweminye imibuzo ephenduliwe, u-'Abdu'l-Bahá uyakwenqaba ukufundwa kwezwi nezwi futhi uthi le ndaba iqukethe "izimfihlakalo zaphezulu kanye nezincazelo zomhlaba wonke".U-Adam ufanekisela "umoya ka-Adam", u-Eva ufanekisela "isiqu Sakhe", isihlahla solwazi sifanekisela "izwe elibonakalayo", kanti inyoka ifanekisela "ukunamathela ezweni elibonakalayo". [6] Ukuwa kuka-Adamu ngaleyo ndlela kufanekisela indlela isintu esazi ngayo okuhle nokubi. Ngomunye umqondo, u-Adamu no-Eva bamele Intando Nokuzimisela KukaNkulunkulu, izigaba ezimbili zokuqala kweziyisikhombisa ze -Divine Creative Action.

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngenkathi umbono owamukelekayo kwaba ukuthi Encwadi KaGenesise lalotshwa uMose kanye iye yabhekwa zomlando ehilela izazi zanamuhla cabanga Genesise ekudalweni lelandzisako njengenye ahlukahlukene lasendulo imvelaphi izinganekwane.

Igalari yezithombe[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. Betsy Halpern Amaru (1999). The Empowerment of Women in the Book of Jubilees, p. 17.
  2. Harry Orlinsky's Notes to the NJPS Torah
  3. Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Wheeler, "Adam and Eve"
  4. Javed Ahmed Ghamidi, Mizan. Lahore: Dar al-Ishraq, 2001
  5. Smith, Peter (2000). "Adam". A Concise Encyclopedia of the Baháʼí Faith. London: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1-78074-480-3. OCLC 890982216. https://books.google.com/books/about/A_Concise_Encyclopedia_of_the_Baha_i_Fai.html?id=Yhy9DwAAQBAJ. Retrieved 2021-06-26. 
  6. McLean, Jack (1997). Revisioning the Sacred: New Perspectives on a Baháʼí Theology – Volume 8. p. 215.


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