Jump to content

INgqoqelolwazi

Mayelana Wikipedia
Imiqulu yohlelo lwe-15 lwe- Encyclopædia Britannica (nomqulu wonyaka ka-2002) athatha anathala amabili ezincwadi emtatsheni wezincwadi.
Ikhasi lesihloko se- Lucubrations, uhlelo lwango-1541, enye yezincwadi zokuqala ukusebenzisa umxhantela wegama INgqoqelolwazi esihlokweni.

INgqoqelolwazi iyincwadi yamaphatho noma iqoqovane elinikeza izifinyezo zolwazi olujwayelekile noma olukhethekile emkhakheni noma isifundo esithile. Izingqoqelokwazi zihlukaniswe zaba izibhalwa noma izifako ezihlelwe ngokwabosonhlamvu bamagama ezihloko noma ngeminxa yezihloko, noma akhongciwe futhi ayahlwayeka. [1] Ngokuvamile, izibhalwa zengqoqelolwazi zigxila ekwazisweni okuyisiminya okumayelana nendaba eshiwo esihlokweni sesibhalwa; lokhu akufani nezifako zesichazamazwi, ezigxile ekwazisweni kolimi okumayelana namagama, njengemsuka yawo, incazelo, ukuphimisela, ukusetshenziswa, kanye nezinhlobo zohlelo lolimi.

Izingqoqelolwazi bezilokhu zikhona iminyaka engaba yizi-2,000 futhi kuleso sikhathi ziye zathuthuka kakhulu ngokolimi (ezibhalwayo ngolimi olukhulu noma oluncane), ubungako (imiqulu embalwa noma eminingi), inhloso (ezethula ulwazi lonke noma olukhawuliwe), imibono engokwesiko (ezinegunya, ezenkolelombono, ezifundisayo, eziwusizo), ngababhali (iziqu zabo, nohlobo lokubhala), ngabafundi, (izinga lemfundo, isizinda, abakuthandayo, namakhono), kanye nangezobuchwepheshe ezikhona ukuze zishicilelwe futhi zisabalaliswe (imibhalo yesandla, ushicilelo olukhulu noma oluncane, uxhakaxholo). Njengemithombo oyigugu nothembekayo oqoqwe izingcweti, izishicilelo zithola indawo ephambili emtatsheni yolwazi, ezikoleni nakwezinye izikhungo zemfundo.

Ukuvela kwezinhlobo zemithombevulekile nezezibhangqiwe kulelikhulu lama-21, ezifana neWikipedia, kukukhulise kakhulu ukufikelelwa, abafundi, abalobi kanye nezifako zengqoqelolwazi ezihlukene.

uMsuka wegama[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Igama elithi 'ingqoqelolwazi' livela ekuhlanganisweni kwamagama amabili, elithi "ingqoqelelo" nelithi "ulwazi", womabili asho ulwazi oluqoqiwe, noma iqoqo lolwazi nemfundo. Lendlela iwukuhumusha kwelesigriki okususelwa kulo elesingisi elithi encyclopedia, ngokwezwi nezwi elisho imfundo evamile noma ulwazi oluphelele.

IziNkondolo zayo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

INgqoqelolwazi yanamuhla yathuthukiswa kusuka encwadini yesichazamazwi ekhulwini le-18. Ngokomlando , kokubili iziNgqoqelolwazi neziChazamazwi ziye zacwaningwa futhi zalotshwa izingcweti zesiqikili ezifunde zagogoda, kodwa azifani indlela uhlaka lwazo oluhlelwe ngayo. IsiChazamazwi siwumsebenzi wolimi ngokuyinhloko ogxile ohlwini losonhlamvukazi bamazwi nezincasiselo zawo . Amabizo amqondofana Kanye nalawo ahlobene nawo ngesihloko ahlakazeka yonke indawo phakathi kuso, ngaphandle kokuwaqoqa kube indaba eyodwa ejulile. Ngaleyondlela, isiChazamazwi sivame ukuba nokwaziswa, inhlaziyo nesizinda okulinganiselwe ngezwi elichasiswayo. Nakuba siphana ngencasiselo , sishiya umfundi waso entula ukuqonda incazelo, ubumqoka nemikhawulo yebizo, kanye nokuthi lelo bizo lihlobana kanjani nomkhakha wolwazi obanzi.

Ekubhekaneni nalezo zidingo, isibhalwa sengqoqelolwazi ngokuvamile asipheleli ezincasiselweni, futhi asipheleli ekuchasiseni izwi ngalinye, kodwa sihlinzeka ngomqondo obanzi wesihloko noma uqeqesho. Ngaphezu kokuchasisa kanye nokwenza uhlu lwamazwi ayimiqondofana waleso sihloko, isibhalwa siyakwazi ukudingida umqondo obanzi wesihloko ngokujulile futhi sidlulise ulwazi oluqongelelwe olufanele ngaleso sihloko. Isibhalwa seNgqoqelolwazi sivame ukuhlanganisa amabalazwe amaningi nemifanekiso, kanye noluhlumibhalo nezibalomininingo. INgqoqelolwazi ngokuvamile ayibhalelwa ukuba igculise, nakuba enye yezimpokophelo zayo kungukugculisa umfundi wayo ngobuqiniso bayo.

Izici ezine eziyinhloko[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Kunezici ezine eziyinhloko ezichasisa INgqoqelolwazi: izihloko zayo, ukujula kwayo, indlelasu yokuhleleka kwayo, kanye nendlelasu yokukhiqizwa kwayo:

  1. IziNgqoqelolwazi zingaba ezivamile, eziqukethe izibhalwa ngezihloko zemikhakha yonke (INgqoqelolwazi yesingisi ebizwa Encyclopædia Britannica kanye neyesiJalimane Brockhaus Enzyklopädie ziyisibonelo esaziwayo).[2] IziNgqoqelolwazi ezivamile zingaqukatha iziqondiso zokuthi Izinto ezithile zenziwa kanjani, kanye nesiChazamazwi ezihlayiziwe. Kukhona nezingqoqelolwazi ezithinta izihloko ezihlukahlukene ezibanzi ngentshwayo yesikompilo, ubuzwe, nohlanga oluthile, ezifana ne- Great Soviet Encyclopedia noma Encyclopaedia Judaica.
  2. Imisebenzi efana nengqoqelolwazi ihlose ukudlulisa ulwazi oluqongelelwe olumqoka esidlangalaleni sesihloko sayo, esifana nengqoqelolwazi yezokwelapha, yenjulalwazi noma yezomthetho. Imisebenzi iyahluka kuye ngobubanzi bolwazi noma ukujula kwengxoxo, okuncike ezihlweleni ezingumngcibishe.
  3. Ezinye izindlelasu ezingokwesimiso zokuhlelemba ziyimfuneko ekwenzeni INgqoqelolwazi isebenziseke ekwenzeni amaphatho. Ngokomlando sekube nezindlelasu zokuhlelemba eziyinhloko ezimbili lapho kuhlelwa IziNgqoqelolwazi ezishicilelwe: indlelasu yohlelo losonhlamvukazi (equkethe izibhalwa esihlukile, ezihlelwe ngosonhkamvukazi)...

Izingqoqelolwazi zasendulo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ikhasi lesihlokosiqu lengqoqelolwazi ebizwa Naturalis Historiæ, uhlelo lowe-1669

INgqoqelolwazi yasendulo esatholakala namuhla yileyo kaPliny the Elder, usombusazwe waseRoma wangekhulu lokuqala, ebizwa "Naturalis Historia".[3][4][5][6] Wahlanganisa lomsebenzi wezahluko ezingamashumi amathathu (37) odingida ngomlando wemvelo, umchazamhlaba, umchazazwe, nazo zonke ezinye izici zezwe ezimzungezile.[6] Lencwadi yaba nesibunge kuleyonkathi yanguna, futhi yaba ngumbhalo wesandla wokuqala owanyatheliswa ngonyaka we-1470, futhi usanedumela lokuba umthombo wolwazi ngezwe laseRoma lasendulo, ikakhulukazi ngobuciko baseRoma, ubuchwepheshe bakhona nomngcikisho wakhona.

U-Isidore was-Seville umlobi wengqoqelolwazi ebizwa Etymologiae engumbhalocwesandla wase-Ottoniya wekhulu leshumi (10)

Imithombo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named DOLencyclopedia
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named what
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named humanities
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named chicago
  5. "History of Encyclopaedias". Britannica. Archived from the original on October 6, 2022. Kulandwe ngomhlaka December 9, 2022.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Nobel, Justin (December 9, 2015). "Encyclopedias Are Time Capsules". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on December 5, 2022. Kulandwe ngomhlaka December 17, 2022.