Amasulumane

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AmaSulumane ( Isi-Arabhu: مسلم‎ ) ngabantu abalandela noma abenza i- Islam, inkolo ka -Abraham monotheistic. Ukutholwa kwe- "Muslim" kusuka egameni lesi- Arabhu elisho ukuthi "ozithoba (kuNkulunkulu)".AmaSulumane cabanga Quran, abo incwadi engcwele, ukuba izwi izwi nezwi ka Nkulunkulu njengoba ivezwe Islamic umprofethi isithunywa Muhammad.Iningi lamaSulumane libuye lilandele izinhlobo zalo zokuhlanganiswa ezithi ziyizimfundiso nemikhuba kaMuhammad ( sunnah ) njengoba kubhaliwe kuma-akhawunti wendabuko ( hadith ).

Izinkolelo amaSulumane zihlanganisa: ukuthi uNkulunkulu ( Isi-Arabhu: اللهU-Allah ) ungowaphakade, odlulele futhi munye ngokuphelele ( tawhid ); ukuthi uNkulunkulu akanakuqhathaniswa, uyazondla futhi akazali futhi akazalwanga; ukuthi i-Islam inguhlobo oluphelele nolusendaweni yonke lokholo lokuqala olwembulwe ngaphambili ngabaprofethi abaningi kubandakanya u-Abrahama, u-Ishmayeli, u-Isaka, uMose noJesu ; ukuthi le milayezo yangaphambilini nezambulo zishintshiwe ngokwengxenye noma zonakaliswa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ( tahrif ) nokuthi iKurani yisambulo sokugcina esingashintshiwe esivela kuNkulunkulu.

Kusukela ngo-2015, ama-1.8 billion noma cishe ama-24.1% omhlaba wonke angamaSulumane.Ngokwephesenti labantu sebonke esifundeni abazibheka njengamaSulumane, ama-91% eMiddle East - eNyakatho Afrika ( MENA ),81% e- Asia Ephakathi,[1] 65% eCaucasus,40% eSoutheast Asia, [2] 31% eSouth Asia,30% e- Sub-Saharan Africa,25% e- Asia nase- Oceania bebonke,cishe ama-6% eYurophu, no-1% emazweni aseMelika.

Iningi lamaSulumane lingelinye lamahlelo amabili; ISunni (75-90%) [3] neShia (12-17%).Cishe ama-12% amaSulumane ahlala e- Indonesia, izwe elikhulu kunawo lonke elinamaSulumane amaningi;31 % amaSulumane ahlala eSouth Asia,inani elikhulu lamaSulumane emhlabeni; 20 % eMiddle East – North Africa,lapho kuyinkolo evelele khona;no-15% e -Afrika eseNingizimu yeSahara.AmaSulumane angabaningi kakhulu e- Asia Ephakathi, [4] iningi laseCaucasus futhi asabalele eNingizimu-mpumalanga ye-Asia.[2]I-India yizwe elinabantu abaningi abangamaSulumane ngaphandle kwamazwe amaningi amaSulumane.Imiphakathi emikhulu yamaSulumane nayo iyatholakala emazweni aseMelika, eChina naseYurophu.[5]I-Islam iyinkolo enkulu ekhula ngokushesha emhlabeni.

Isiqu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukuze ube ngumSulumane futhi uguqukele enkolweni yobuSulumane, kubalulekile ukukhuluma iShahada, enye yezinsika ezinhlanu zobuSulumane, isimemezelo sokholo nokwethembela ukuthi kukhona uNkulunkulu oyedwa kuphela (u- Allah ) nokuthi uMuhammad uyisithunywa sikaNkulunkulu.Isitatimende esibekiwe esivame ukufundwa ngesi-Arabhu: ašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llhuhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llh ( أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمداً رسول الله "Ngiyafakaza ukuthi akekho unkulunkulu [ofanelwe ukukhonzwa] ngaphandle kuka-Allah, futhi uMuhammad uyisithunywa sika-Allah."

Ku- Sunni Islam, i-degree inezingxenye ezimbili: la ilaha illa'llah (akekho unkulunkulu ngaphandle kuka- Allah ), noMuhammadun rasul Allah ( uMuhammad uyisithunywa sikaNkulunkulu), [6] kwesinye isikhathi okuthiwa yi- degree yokuqala futhi eyesibili degree . [7]Isitatimende sokuqala se-degree saziwa nangokuthi yi- tahlīl.

Ku- Shia Islam, i-degree nayo inengxenye yesithathu, ibinzana eliphathelene no- Ali, owokuqala uShia Imam kanye no calid wesine we- Rashid weSunni Islam : وعليٌ وليُّ الله wa ʿalīyyun walīyyu-llāh okungama-"Ali iyona wali kaNkulunkulu". [8]

Ku- Quranist Islam, i-shahada iwubufakazi bokuthi akekho unkulunkulu ngaphandle kuka- Allah ( la ilaha illa'llah ).

Imikhuba yenkolo yamaSulumane ibaluliwe eziNsika ezinhlanu zamaSulumane : isimemezelo sokholo ( shahadah ), imithandazo yansuku zonke ( salah ), ukunikela ngezipho ( zakat ), ukuzila ukudla phakathi nenyanga kaRamadan ( sawm ), nokuhambela eMecca ( hajj) ) okungenani kanye empilweni.

I-Etymology[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Igama muslim ( Isi-Arabhu: مسلم‎ , IPA: [ˈMʊslɪm] ; English: / m ʌ z l ɪ m /, /m ʊ z l ɪ m /, /m ʊ s l ɪ m / noma Moslem /m ɒ z l ə m /, /m ɒ s l ə m / ) iyona esithi asebenzayo zesenzo segama elifanayo zazo Islam iyi ngamazwi ibizo, esekelwe triliteral SLM "ukuba wonke, njengoba yayinjalo." [9]A adherent besifazane kuyinto muslima ( Isi-Arabhu: مسلمة‎ ) (ibuye ihunyushwe ngokuthi "Muslimah" ). Isimo sobuningi ngesi-Arabhu yi- muslimūn ( مسلمون ) noma muslimīn ( مسلمين ), futhi okufana nayo njengowesifazane yi- muslimāt ( مسلمات ).

Igama elijwayelekile esiNgisini lithi "Muslim". Igama Mosalman ( Persian , Kungenjalo Mussalman) kuyinto okulingana ezivamile Muslim elisetshenziswa Central kanye naseNingizimu Asia.EsiNgisini kwesinye isikhathi bekubhalwa ukuthi Mussulman futhi sekuyinto yakudala ekusetshenzisweni.Kuze kube okungenani maphakathi nawo-1960, ababhali abaningi abakhuluma isiNgisi basebenzise igama elithi Mohammedans noma Mahometans . [10]Yize amagama anjalo ayengahloselwe ukubandlulula, amaSulumane athi lawo magama ayacasula ngoba kuthiwa asho ukuthi amaSulumane akhonza uMuhammad kunokuthi akhulekele uNkulunkulu.Amanye amagama angasasebenzi kanye namaSulumane.

Abanye abaprofethi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Kushiwo ku-hadith evela ku-Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Ridha ukuthi uMprofethi wamaSulumane wathi: "UNkulunkulu wadala abaprofethi abayizinkulungwane eziyi-124, engibathandayo kuNkulunkulu, ngasikhathi sinye angiziqhayisi (futhi angibonisi ukuziqhenya) futhi uNkulunkulu wadala amafa ayizinkulungwane eziyi-124, u-Ali ahlonishwa futhi aphakeme kunoNkulunkulu kunabo bonke."I-Qur'an ichaza abaprofethi nezithunywa eziningi ngaphakathi kobuJuda nobuKristu, kanye nabalandeli babo, njengamaSulumane: u-Adam, uNowa, u-Abrahama, u-Ishmayeli, uJakobe, uMose, noJesu nabaphostoli bakhe bonke babhekwa njengamaSulumane iKurani.I-Qur'an ithi la madoda ayengamaSulumane ngoba ayethobela uNkulunkulu, ashumayela umyalezo waKhe futhi agcina izimiso zaKhe, ezibandakanya ukuthandaza, isisa senhliziyo, ukuzila ukudla nokuhambela izindawo ezingcwele.Ngakho-ke, kuSurah 3:52 yeQur'an, abafundi bakaJesu bayamtshela, "Siyakholelwa kuNkulunkulu; futhi ube ngufakazi wethu ukuthi singamaSulumane (wa-shahad be anna muslimūn )."Ngokwenkolelo yamaMuslim, ngaphambi kweKurani, uNkulunkulu wayenikeze iTawrat ( Torah ) kuMose, iZabur ( AmaHubo ) kuDavid ne- Injil ( iVangeli ) kuJesu, bonke ababhekwa njengabaprofethi abangamaSulumane ababalulekile.

Izibalo zabantu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Inani lamaSulumane omhlaba ngamaphesenti ( As of 2010 kusuka ePew Research Center )
Imephu yabantu abangamaSulumane ngenombolo ephelele

Izwe elinabantu abaningi abangamaSulumane yi-Indonesia, ikhaya lamaSulumane angu-12.7% emhlabeni, elandelwa iPakistan (11.0%), iBangladesh (9.2%), iNigeria (5.3%) neGibhithe (4.9%).Cishe ama-20% amaSulumane emhlabeni ahlala eMiddle East naseNyakatho Afrika.

Izimbalwa ezincane ezitholakalayo ziyatholakala naseNdiya, eChina, e- Ethiopia, eMelika, e-Australia nasezingxenyeni ezithile zeYurophu.Izwe elinenani eliphakeme kakhulu lamaSulumane azichaza njengengxenye yabantu bawo bonke iMorocco.

AmaSulumane angaphezu kwama-75-90% angamaSunni.Ihlelo lesibili nelesithathu ngobukhulu, iShia ne- Ahmadiyya, bakha u-10-20%, [11] no-1% ngokulandelana.

Ngabalandeli ababalelwa ezigidini eziyi-1.8 (2019), cishe ikota yesibalo sabantu emhlabeni,Islam iyinkolo yesibili ngobukhulu futhi ekhula ngesivinini esikhulu emhlabeni ngenxa yeminyaka yobudala kanye nezinga eliphezulu lokuzala kwamaSulumane, [12] ngamaSulumane anezinga le- (3.1) uma kuqhathaniswa nesilinganiso somhlaba esingu- (2.5).Ngokusho kocwaningo olufanayo, ukushintshwa kwezenkolo akunamthelela kubantu baseSulumane, ngoba inani labantu abamukela amaSulumane nalabo abashiya i-Islam cishe lilingana.

Ucwaningo lwePew Center e2016 luthole ukuthi amaSulumane anesibalo esiphezulu sabalandeli abangaphansi kweminyaka engu-15 (34% yenani lamaSulumane lonke) yanoma iyiphi inkolo enkulu, kuyilapho bangu-7% kuphela abaneminyaka engama-60 + (amaphesenti amancane kunayo yonke inkolo enkulu ).Ngokusho kocwaningo olufanayo, amaSulumane anamazinga aphezulu okuzala (3.1) kunoma yiliphi iqembu elikhulu lenkolo.Ucwaningo luphinde lwathola ukuthi amaSulumane (aboshwe namaHindu ) anezinga eliphansi kakhulu lemfundo ngesilinganiso seminyaka engu-5.6 yokufunda, yize womabili la maqembu enze inzuzo enkulu kakhulu ekufinyeleleni kwezemfundo emashumini eminyaka amuva phakathi kwezinkolo ezinkulu. [13]Cishe ama-36% awo wonke amaSulumane awanayo imfundo esemthethweni, [13] kanti amaSulumane anamazinga aphansi aphansi emfundo ephakeme yanoma yiliphi iqembu lezenkolo elikhulu, kanti ama-8% kuphela aneziqu zokuthweswa iziqu nezokuphothula. [13]

Amasiko[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  Isiko lamaSulumane noma isiko lamaSulumane amagama asetshenziswa ukuchaza imikhuba yamasiko ejwayelekile kumaSulumane nakubantu abangamaSulumane ngokomlando.Izinhlobo zokuqala zesiko lamaSulumane, kusukela eRashidun Caliphate kuya esikhathini sokuqala se- Umayyad, kwakungu- Arabhu kakhulu, iByzantine, iPersian neLevantine .Ngokwanda okusheshayo kwemibuso yamaSulumane, isiko lamaSulumane lithonye futhi lafaka okuningi emasikweni asePheresiya, eGibhithe, eCaucasian, eTurkic, eMongolia, eSouth Asia, eMalay, eSomalia, eBerber, e- Indonesia, naseMoro .

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. "CENTRAL ASIA ii. Demography". CENTRAL ASIA ii. Demography. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/central-asia-ii. Retrieved 2017-05-25. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 The Middle East and Muslim Southeast Asia: Implications of the Arab Spring. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/Public/focus/essay1009_southeast_asia.html.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Yusuf" defined multiple times with different content
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Sunni-eb
  4. Rowland. "CENTRAL ASIA ii. Demography". CENTRAL ASIA ii. Demography. http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/central-asia-ii. 
  5. Book review: Russia's Muslim Heartlands reveals diverse population, https://www.thenational.ae/arts-culture/book-review-russia-s-muslim-heartlands-reveals-diverse-population-1.723230 
  6. Lindsay, p. 140–141
  7. Cornell, p. 9
  8. The Later Mughals by William Irvine p. 130
  9. Burns & Ralph, World Civilizations, 5th ed., p. 371.
  10. See for instance the second edition of A Dictionary of Modern English Usage by H. W. Fowler, revised by Ernest Gowers (Oxford, 1965).
  11. "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Kulandwe ngomhlaka 25 August 2010. Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population... Shia Islam represents 10–20% of Muslims worldwide... Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  12. (Report). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Empty citation (help)