I-Nitrogen

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I-nitrogen iyinhlanganisela yamakhemikhali enophawu N nenombolo ye-athomu 7. Yatholwa okokuqala futhi yahlukaniswa ngudokotela waseScotland uDaniel Rutherford ngo-1772. isikweletu ngoba umsebenzi wakhe ushicilelwe kuqala. Igama elithi nitrogène laphakanyiswa usokhemisi waseFrance uJean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal ngo-1790 ngenkathi kutholakala ukuthi i-nitrogen yayikhona ku-nitric acid kanye nama-nitrate. U-Antoine Lavoisier uphakamise esikhundleni igama elithi azote, elivela esiGrekini sakudala: ἀζωτικός "akukho kuphila", njengoba kuyigesi edonsa umoya; leli gama lisetshenziswa esikhundleni sezilimi eziningi, ezinjengesiFulentshi, isiNtaliyane, isiRashiya, isiRomania, isiPutukezi kanye nesiTurkish, futhi livela emagameni esiNgisi amanye amakhemikhali e-nitrogen afana ne-hydrazine, azides kanye ne-azo compounds.

Nitrogen-glow


Evaporation of liquid nitrogen

Isakhiwo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-nitrogen yilungu elilula kunazo zonke eqenjini le-15 letafula lezikhathi, ngokuvamile elibizwa ngama-pnictogens. Kuyinto ejwayelekile endaweni yonke, elinganiselwa cishe kwisikhombisa ngobuningi eMilky Way naseSolar System. Ekushiseni okujwayelekile nokucindezela, ama-athomu amabili e-element abopha ukwakha i-dinitrogen, igesi ye-diatomic engenambala futhi engenaphunga ne-formula N2. IDinitrogen yakha cishe u-78% womkhathi womhlaba, okwenza kube yinto engakahlanganiswa kakhulu. I-nitrogen yenzeka kuzo zonke izinto eziphilayo, ikakhulukazi kuma-amino acid (futhi ngaleyo ndlela amaprotheni), kuma-acid e-nucleic (i-DNA ne-RNA) naku-molecule yokudlulisa amandla i-adenosine triphosphate. Umzimba womuntu uqukethe cishe u-3% we-nitrogen ngobuningi, into yesine egcwele kakhulu emzimbeni ngemuva komoya-mpilo, i-carbon, ne-hydrogen. Umjikelezo we-nitrogen uchaza ukunyakaza kwento isuka emoyeni, iye ku-biosphere kanye naku-organic compounds, bese ibuyela emoyeni.

Izinhlanganisela eziningi ezibalulekile ezimbonini, njenge-ammonia, i-nitric acid, ama-nitrate ephilayo (ama-propellants kanye neziqhumane), nama-cyanides, aqukethe i-nitrogen. Isibopho esinamandla aphindwe kathathu ku-elemental nitrogen (N≡N), isibopho sesibili esiqine kakhulu kunoma iyiphi i-molecule ye-diatomic ngemuva kwe-carbon monoxide (CO), ilawula i-nitrogen chemistry. Lokhu kubangela ubunzima kuzo zombili izinto eziphilayo nezimboni ekuguquleni i-N2 ibe ngamakhemikhali awusizo, kepha ngasikhathi sinye kusho ukuthi ukushisa, ukuqhuma, noma ukubola kwamakhemikhali e-nitrogen akha igesi ye-nitrogen kukhipha inani elikhulu lamandla avame ukusebenziseka. Ama-ammonia nama-nitrate akhiqizwe ngokungemthetho angumanyolo osemqoka wezimboni, kanti ama-nitrate kamanyolo yizinto ezingcolisa ukhiye ekusetshenzisweni kwamanzi kwezinhlelo zamanzi.

Ngaphandle kokusetshenziswa kwayo kumanyolo nakwezitolo zamandla, i-nitrogen iyinhlanganisela yamakhemikhali aphilayo ahlukahlukene njenge-Kevlar asetshenziswa endwangu enamandla amakhulu kanye ne-cyanoacrylate esetshenziswa ku-superglue. I-nitrogen iyinhlangano yesigaba ngasinye esikhulu semithi yokwelapha, kufaka phakathi ama-antibiotic. Izidakamizwa eziningi zilingisa noma ziyi-prodrugs yamamolekyu wesiginali aqukethe i-nitrogen yemvelo: ngokwesibonelo, i-organic nitrate nitroglycerin ne-nitroprusside ilawula umfutho wegazi ngokuxubana ne-nitric oxide. Izidakamizwa eziningi eziphawuleka eziqukethe i-nitrogen, njenge-caffeine yemvelo kanye ne-morphine noma ama-amphetamines enziwe, zisebenza kuma-receptors wezilwane ezingama-neurotransmitter.

I-Nitrogen Oxide[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Nitrogen_dioxide

I-nitrogen oxide ingabhekisela kunhlanganisela kanambambili ye-oxygen ne-nitrogen, noma ingxube yamakhemikhali anjalo.

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ama-nitrogen compounds anomlando omude kakhulu, i-ammonium chloride yaziwa nguHerodotus. Babaziwa kakhulu ngeNkathi Ephakathi. Ama-Alchemists ayazi i-nitric acid njenge-aqua fortis (amanzi aqinile), kanye namanye ama-nitrogen compounds afana ne-ammonium salts kanye ne-nitrate salts. Ingxube ye-nitric ne-hydrochloric acid yaziwa njenge-aqua regia (amanzi asebukhosini), ebungazwa ngekhono layo lokuqothula igolide, inkosi yezinsimbi.

Ukutholakala kwe-nitrogen kuthiwa kudokotela waseScotland uDaniel Rutherford ngo-1772, owabiza ngokuthi umoya onobungozi. Iqiniso lokuthi kwakukhona ingxenye yomoya engahambisani nomlilo kwacaca kuRutherford, yize ayengazi ukuthi kwakuyinto ethile. I-nitrogen nayo yafundwa cishe ngasikhathi sinye nguCarl Wilhelm Scheele, uHenry Cavendish, noJoseph Priestley, ababebiza ngayo njengomoya oshile noma umoya omile. Isazi samakhemikhali saseFrance u-Antoine Lavoisier ubize igesi ye-nitrogen ngokuthi "umoya we-mephitic" noma i-azote, kusuka egameni lesiGreki elithi άζωτικός (azotikos), "akukho kuphila", ngenxa yokuthi iningi lalo alikho. Emkhathini we-nitrogen emsulwa, izilwane zafa futhi amalangabi aqedwa. Yize igama likaLavoisier lingamukelwanga esiNgisini, ngoba kwavezwa ukuthi cishe wonke amagesi (empeleni, ngaphandle komoya-mpilo kuphela) ayimilikhi, lisetshenziswa ezilimini eziningi (isiFulentshi, isiNtaliyane, isiPutukezi, isiPolish, isiRussia, isi-Albania, IsiTurkey, njll.; I-German Stickstoff ngokufanayo ibhekisa kusici esifanayo, okuwukuthi. Ersticken "to choke or suffocos") futhi isalokhu ihleli esiNgisini emagameni ajwayelekile ezinhlanganisela eziningi ze-nitrogen, njenge-hydrazine namakhemikhali e-azide ion. Ekugcineni, kwaholela egameni elithi "pnictogens" leqembu eliholwa yi-nitrogen, elivela esiGrekini πνίγειν "to choke".

Igama lesiNgisi i-nitrogen (1794) langena olimini lisuka ku-nitrogène yaseFrance, eyaqanjwa ngo-1790 ngusokhemisi waseFrance uJean-Antoine Chaptal (1756-1832), evela kwi-French nitre (i-potassium nitrate, ebizwa nangokuthi i-saltpeter) kanye nesijobelelo sesiFulentshi -gène, "ukukhiqiza", kusuka esiGrekini -γενής (-genes, "kuzelwe"). Incazelo kaChaptal ukuthi i-nitrogen yingxenye ebalulekile ye-nitric acid, nayo ekhiqizwa nge-nitre. Ezikhathini zangaphambili, i-niter yayididaniswe ne- "natron" yaseGibhithe (i-sodium carbonate) - ebizwa ngokuthi νίτρον (nitron) ngesiGreki - okwathi, ngaphandle kwegama, yayingenayo i-nitrate.

Ukusetshenziswa kokuqala kwezempi, izimboni, nezolimo kwamakhemikhali e-nitrogen kwakusetshenziswa i-saltpeter (i-sodium nitrate noma i-potassium nitrate), ikakhulukazi emgqonyeni wezibhamu, futhi kamuva njengomanyolo. Ngo-1910, u-Lord Rayleigh wathola ukuthi ukukhishwa kukagesi kwigesi ye-nitrogen kwaveza "i-nitrogen esebenzayo", i-monatomic allotrope ye-nitrogen. "Ifu elishintshashintshayo lokukhanya okuphuzi okukhanyayo" okwenziwa yithuluzi lakhe lasabela nge-mercury ukukhiqiza i-mercury nitride eqhumayo.

Isikhathi eside, imithombo yamakhemikhali e-nitrogen ayenqunyelwe. Imithombo yemvelo isuselwe ku-biology noma kuma-nitrate akhiqizwa ukuphendula komoya. Ukulungiswa kwe-nitrogen ngezinqubo zezimboni ezifana nenqubo kaFrank – Caro (1895-1899) kanye nenqubo yeHaber – Bosch (1908-1913) yehlisa lokhu kushoda kwamakhemikhali e-nitrogen, kangangoba uhhafu womkhiqizo wokudla emhlabeni (bheka Izicelo) manje usuthembele kuzinto zokwenziwa Ngasikhathi sinye, ukusetshenziswa kwenqubo ye-Ostwald (1902) ukukhiqiza ama-nitrate kusuka ekulungisweni kwe-nitrogen yezimboni kwavumela ukukhiqizwa okukhulu kwezimboni kwama-nitrate njenge-feedstock ekwenziweni kweziqhumane eMpini Yomhlaba yekhulu lama-20.

Izakhiwo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-athomu ye-nitrogen inama-electron ayisikhombisa. Esimweni somhlaba, zihlelwe ekucushweni kwe-electron 1s2

2s2

2p1

x2p1

y2p1

z. Ngakho-ke inama-elektroni amahlanu e-valence kuma-orbital we-2s no-2p, amathathu awo (ama-p-electron) angakhanjwanga. Inokunye kokuphakanyiswa okuphezulu kakhulu kwezinto phakathi kwezakhi (i-3.04 esikalini sePauling), kudlule kuphela nge-chlorine (3.16), i-oxygen (3.44), ne-fluorine (3.98). (Amagesi akhanyayo amahle, i-helium, i-neon, ne-argon, kungenzeka futhi ukuthi abe namandla amaningi, futhi empeleni asesilinganisweni sika-Allen.) Ukulandela ukuthambekela kwezikhathi ezithile, irediyasi yayo ebophelekayo eyodwa yama-71 pm incane kunaleyo ye-boron ( 84 pm) nekhabhoni (76 pm), ngenkathi inkulu kunaleyo ye-oxygen (66 pm) ne-fluorine (57 pm). I-nitride anion, i-N3−, inkulu kakhulu ngo-146 pm, ifana naleyo ye-oxide (O2−: 140 pm) ne-fluoride (F−: 133 pm) anion. Amandla amathathu okuqala e-nitrogen yi-1.402, 2.856, no-4.577 MJ · mol − 1, futhi isamba sesine nesesihlanu ngu-16.920 MJ · mol − 1. Ngenxa yalezi zibalo eziphakeme kakhulu, i-nitrogen ayinayo i-cationic chemistry elula.

Ukushoda kwama-radial node ku-2p subshell kubhekene ngqo nezakhiwo eziningi ezingathandeki zomugqa wokuqala we-p-block, ikakhulukazi ku-nitrogen, oxygen, ne-fluorine. Isikhwama se-2p sincane kakhulu futhi sinobubanzi obufana kakhulu negobolondo lama-2s, elenza i-orbital hybridisation. Kubuye kube nemiphumela yamandla amakhulu kakhulu wokuheha phakathi kwe-nucleus nama-elektroni e-valence kuma-2s nakuma-2p amagobolondo, okuholele ekuphakameni okukhulu kwe-electronegativities. I-Hypervalency icishe ingaziwa ezintweni ze-2p ngesizathu esifanayo, ngoba i-electronegativity ephezulu yenza kube nzima nge-athomu encane ye-nitrogen ukuthi ibe yi-athomu ephakathi nendawo ene-electron ecebile enezikhungo ezintathu ezine-electron bond ngoba izothanda ukuheha ama-electron ngokuqinile kuyo uqobo. Ngakho-ke, yize isikhundla se-nitrogen sihamba phambili eqenjini le-15 kuthebula lezikhathi ezithile, i-chemistry yayo ikhombisa umehluko omkhulu kunaleyo yeziqalo zayo ezisinda kakhulu i-phosphorus, i-arsenic, i-antimony, ne-bismuth.

I-nitrogen ingaqhathaniswa ngokunenzuzo namakhemikhali ayo avundlile i-carbon ne-oxygen kanye nomakhelwane bayo abame mpo kukholamu ye-pnictogen, i-phosphorus, i-arsenic, i-antimony ne-bismuth. Yize isikhathi ngasinye i-elementi engu-2 kusuka ku-lithium kuya ku-oxygen sikhombisa ukufana okuthile kwenkathi yesi-3 eqenjini elilandelayo (kusuka ku-magnesium kuya ku-chlorine; lawa aziwa njengobudlelwano obuvundlile), iziqu zawo zehla ngokungazelelwe zidlula i-boron – silicon pair. Ukufana kwe-nitrogen nesibabule kukhawulelwe kakhulu kumakhemikhali e-nitride ring lapho izinto zombili zikhona kuphela.

I-nitrogen ayihlanganyeli nokutholakala kwekhabhoni ukuze kudliwe. Njengekhabhoni, i-nitrogen ijwayele ukwakha izinhlanganisela ze-ionic noma zensimbi nezinsimbi. I-nitrogen yakha uchungechunge olubanzi lwama-nitride anekhabhoni, kufaka phakathi lawo anezakhi ezinjenge-chain-, graphitic-, kanye ne-fullerenic-like.

Ifana ne-oksijini ngamandla ayo aphezulu we-electronegativity namandla ahambisanayo we-hydrogen bonding kanye nekhono lokwenza izakhiwo zokuhlanganisa ngokunikela ngazimbili zalo elilodwa lama-electron. Kukhona okunye ukufana phakathi kwamakhemikhali e-ammonia i-NH3 namanzi i-H2O. Isibonelo, amandla womabili amakhemikhali okufanele akhonjiswe ukunikeza i-NH4 + ne-H3O + noma ukukhishwa ukuze kunikezwe i-NH2− ne-OH−, nazo zonke lezi zinto zikwazi ukuhlukaniswa kumakhemikhali aqinile.

Izabelo zeNitrogen zombili omakhelwane bayo abavundlile okuncamelayo ekwakheni ama-bond amaningi, ikakhulukazi nge-carbon, oxygen, noma amanye ama-athomu we-nitrogen, ngokuhlangana kwep-pπ. Ngakho-ke, isibonelo, i-nitrogen yenzeka njengama-molecule e-diatomic ngakho-ke inokuncibilika okuphansi kakhulu (- 210 ° C) namaphoyinti abilayo (-196 ° C) kunalo lonke iqembu lawo, njengoba ama-molecule e-N2 abanjwa kuphela ngokuhlangana okubuthakathaka kwe-van der Waals futhi kunama-electron ambalwa kakhulu atholakalayo ukudala ama-dipoles abalulekile ngokushesha. Lokhu akunakwenzeka komakhelwane bayo abame mpo; ngakho-ke, i-nitrogen oxides, i-nitrites, i-nitrate, i-nitro-, i-nitroso-, i-azo-, ne-diazo-compounds, ama-azides, ama-cyanate, ama-thiocyanate, nama-imino-derivatives awatholi mqondo nge-phosphorus, i-arsenic, i-antimony, noma i-bismuth. Ngendlela efanayo, noma kunjalo, ubunzima be-phosphorus oxoacids abutholi ukuhlangana ne-nitrogen.Ukubeka eceleni umehluko wabo, i-nitrogen ne-phosphorus kwakha uchungechunge oluningi lwamakhemikhali omunye komunye; lezi zinezakhiwo zamaketanga, izindandatho, nezindlwana