UMkhathilibe

Mayelana Wikipedia

Hubble ultra deep field.jpg

uMkhathilibe uyikho konke okomkhathi nesikhathi nakho konke okuqukethwe yikho, [1][2][3][4] okungahlanisa imiZulane, iziNkanyezi, iMikhathinga, kanye nazo zonke izinhlobo zoTho neMpekumpeku. Umbono wokuQhuma okuKhulu uyincazelo edlu'bhedu engokomkhathi yokwakheka koMkhathilibe. Ngokwalombono, umkhathi nesikhathi kwavela ndawonye eminyakeni engaba izigidigudi ezingama-13.787 ±0.020 ezidlule, futhi umkhathilibe ubulokhu ulwiza kusuka lapho. Nakuba isilinganiso esiphelele somkhathilibe wonke singaziwa, kuyinto engenzeka ukuba kulinganiswe ubungako bomkhathilibe esingawubuka, okungenzeka ungukukhanyabanga okuyizigidigidi ezingama-93 ngebangandilinga namuhla.


Unongo lokuma komkhathi lwangaphambili olwaziwayo lomkhathilibe lwenziwa osonjulalwazi bamaGreki namaNdiya futhi lwaluthi umhlaba ungumnyombo wozungezohlelo. Emakhulwini eminyaka eyalandela, iziqapho zezulu ezinembile ezenziwa ziholwa uNicolaus Copernicus, ezaziyizinongo zomnyombo welanga ohlelweni lukaNozubgezilanga, zakuphikisa lokho. Ekuthuthukiseni umthetho womnyondo wajikelele, u-Isaac Newton wakhela phezu komsebenzi ka-Copernicus nasemthethweni womdiki wemizulane kaJohannes Keppler kanye naseziqaphweni zikaTycho Brahe.

Iziqapho eziqhubekayo ezithuthukile zaholela ekuqapheleni ukuthi ilanga lingenye yezinkanyezi eziyizigidigidi ezingamakhulu ambalwa kumzilafasimbe, okungumthalakazi owodwa kweyizigidigidi zamakhulu ambalwa kumkhathilibe. Iningi lezinkanyezi kumthalakazi zinemizulane. Ngokomlinganiso omkhulu, imithalakazi esabalaliswe ngokufanayo futhi iyefana nhkangothi zonke, okusho ukuthi umkhathilibe awunamnyombo noma umkhawulo. Ngokwemilinganiso emincane, imithalakazi isabalaliswe njengezixheke nezixhekekazi (superclusters) ezakha izinkosa ezínkulu ezifana namangqola (foam-like)  kanye namaze(voids) emkhathingeni, kanjalo zidala izinhlaka ezifana nengqola. Izivubukulo kmekhulwini lama-20 zisikisele ukuthi umkhathilibe wawunesiqalo nokuthi umkhathi ubulokhu ulwiza kusuka kuso ngezinga elikhuphukayo.

Ngokombono wokuqhuma okukhulu, impekumpeku notho ezazikhona ekuqaleni sezibe siluthe kancane njengoba umkhathilibe ulwiza. Emva kokulwiza okuphangisayo kwakuqala okubizwa (inflationary epoch) kwemizuzwana engaba i-10−32, kanye nokuhlukaniswa kweziphoqi eziyisiseko ezine ezaziwayo, umkhathilibe waphola kancane futhi waqhubeka nokulwiza, okwavumela izinhlayiyana zechwe zokuqala kanye namachwe alula kwakheke. Injelwane yaqala ukubutheleka kancane, ngokwakha izinhlaka ezifana namangqola zezinkosa kanye namaze(voids) ngaphansi kwethonya lomnyondo. Amafu ayisiqhamela ehwanzi kanye nehwelanga ahosheka kancane kancane ezindaweni lapho injelwane yayisiluthe khona, futhi zakha imithalakazi yokuqala, izinkanyezi nakho konke esikubonayo namuhla.

Ngokucwaninga umdiki wemithalakazi, sekuvubukulwe ukuthi umkhathilibe uqukethe okungaphezu kotho olungaphezu kwesikubonayo; izinkanyezi, imithalakazi, imiqongo nothunqathunqa lwenqeke. Lolutho olungabonakali lwaziwa ngokuthi injelwane (dark means that there is a wide range of strong indirect evidence that it exists, but we have not yet detected it directly). Unongo lwe-ΛCDM luwunongo olwamukelwa kabanzi lonongo lomkhatgilibe. Lusikisela ukuthi isisindo nempekumpeku okungama-69.2%±1.2% [2015] kumkhathilibe buyi-(cosmological constant) (noma, injijo ye-ΛCDM, ezinye izimo zesidlakalasi esimpisholo, ezifana scalar field) okuyizo ezibangela ukulwiza komkhathi okwenzeka manje, kanye nenjelwane engama-25.8%±1.1% [2015]. Ngalokho utho ('lwenkindisi') oluvamile ludla umkhathilibe ongaba inani-4.84%±0.1% [2015]. Izinkanyezi, imizulane, kanye nthunqathunqa lohowo lwakha inani 6% lotho oluvamile.

Kunezihlawumbiselo ezincintisanayo ngokuphathelene nesigcino esinqunyelwe umkhathilibe futhi nangokuphathelene nokuthi yini eyandulela ukuqhuma okukhulu, kuyilapho abanye abafundindalo nabosonjululwazi benqaba ukuqagela, bethandabuza ukuba ukwaziswa ngokuphathelene nezimo ezandulele kuzofikelelwa. Abanye abafundindalo sebasikisele ízihlawumbiselo zemikhathilibe eminingi engafani, lapho umkhathilibe wethu uyingxenye yeminye imikhathilibe ekhona njengawo.

Incasiselo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Isihlongamkhathi i-Hubble – Ultra deep field galaxies to Legacy field zoom out
(video 00:50; May 2, 2019)

Umkhathilibe ongokoqobo uchasiswa njengawo wonke umkhathi nesikhathi[lower-alpha 1].[5] Iziqikili ezifana nalezinzihlanganisa sonke isidlakathi ngezinhlobo zazo, kuhlanganisa imiyonzi yenzubawonga kanye noTho, kuhlanganise nemizulane, amaduna wemvelo (natural satellites), izinkanyezi, imithalakazo, kanye neziqikili ezisemkhathingeni ongaphandle.[6][7][8] Umkhathilibe ubuye uhlanganise nayo yonke imigume yemvelo ethonya isidlakathi noTho, efana nemigume wokukhweza, kanye nesimelana (relativity).[9]

Umkhathilibe uvame ukuchasiswa "njengesamba sobukhona", noma konke okukhona , konke okwake kwaba khona, nakho konke okusazoba khona.

Imithombo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. Universe. Webster's New World College Dictionary, Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2010.
  2. "Universe". Dictionary.com.
  3. "Universe". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  4. Zeilik, Michael; Gregory, Stephen A. (1998). Introductory Astronomy & Astrophysics (4th ed.). Saunders College Publishing. ISBN 0030062284. The totality of all space and time; all that is, has been, and will be.
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Zeilik1998
  6. "Universe". Encyclopaedia Britannica online. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc.. 2012. https://www.britannica.com/science/universe. Retrieved February 17, 2018. 
  7. "Universe". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Archived from the original on October 22, 2012. Kulandwe ngomhlaka September 21, 2012. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  8. "Universe". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Kulandwe ngomhlaka September 21, 2012. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  9. Schreuder, Duco A. (December 3, 2014). Vision and Visual Perception. Archway Publishing. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-4808-1294-9. Archived from the original on April 22, 2021. Kulandwe ngomhlaka January 27, 2016. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)


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