Uhlelo lwenhlonzabuso

Mayelana Wikipedia
Ihlelokusebenza lenhlonzabuso esikhumulweni sezindiza eMelika
Isango lamathikithi lenhleleleko elinohlelo lwenhlnzabuso esiteshini sesitimela e,Morinomiya, e-Osaka

Uhlelo lwenhlonzabuso liwubuchwepheshe obukwazi ukuqhathanisa ubuso bomuntu obusemfanekisweni wezezibhangqiwe noma uhlakana lombukiso kanye nesizindamininingo esigcina iqoqo lobuso. Lolu hlelo luvame ukusetshenziswa ukuqinisekisa abasebenzisi bokuthile ngezinkonzo zokuqinisekisa, futhi busebenza ngokukhomba kanye nokulinganisa ulwangu lobuso olusesithombeni esikhethiwe.

Ukuthuthukiswa kwalobuchwepheshe kwaqala ngezinhlelo ezifanayo eminyakeni ye-1960, njengohlobo lenhlelokusebenza lwesiCikizi. Kusuka lapho, uhlelo lwenhlonzabuso luye lwasetshenziswa kabanzi ezikhathini zakamuva komakhalipha nakwezinye izinhlobo zobuchwepheshe, ezifana nezobuthununu. Ngenxa yokuthi inhlonzabuso yesicikizi ibandakanya ukulinganisa izici zochazomzimba zomuntu, uhlelo lwenhlonzabuso lumunxaniswa njengesilinganisimuntu (biometric). Nakuba ukunemba kwezinhlelo zenhlonzabuso njengobuchwepheshe besilinganisimuntu kuphansi kunobenhlonzaliso (iris recognition) nobenhlonzazithupha (fingerprint recognition), busethsenziswa kabanzi ngenxa yenqubo yabo yokungathintani nabantu. Izinhlelo zenhlonzabuso ziyasetshrnziswa kwisinanelo somuntu-nesicikizi esithuthukile, ibukwa lesiqaphabukhoma (surveillance video) kanye nokufaka ohlwini kwezithombe ngokwenhleleleko.

Izinhlelo zenhlonzabuso zisetshenziswa namuhla ngohulumeni nayimishumanqa esilulu emhlabeni wonke. Igqino lwazo luyahlukahluka, futhi izinye izinhlelo endulo ziye zayekwa ngenxa yokungabi negqino. Ukusetshenziswa lohlelo lwenhlonzabuso kuye kwavusa izimpikiswano, lapho abanye bethi luhlukumeza ingasese lezakhamuzi, futhi luvame ukuhlonza abantu ngokunganembile, lukhuthaza ukuhlukaniswa ngokobulili nangokobuhlanga, futhi aluvikeli imininingo elinganisimpilo ebalulekile. Ukuvela kwezinsiza ezifana nombukonyali (deepfake) nakho kuphakamise iminako ngokuphepha kwazo. Lokhu kukhuluma sekuholele ekunswinyweni kwezinhlelo zenhlonzabuso ezidlaveleni ezimbalwa kwelaseMelika. Ngenxa yokukhula kwezikhalazo zomphakathi, umShumanqa iMeta seyimemezele izinhlelo zokuvala uhlelo lwenhlonzabuso lwe-Facebook, yacisha nemininingo yesigqaya buso yabasebenzisi abangaphezu kwezigidigidi. Lolushintsho luzomelela ukugudluka okukhulu ekusetshenzisweni kwenhlonzabuso emlandweni wezobuchwepheshe.

uMlando wobuchwepheshe benhlonzabuso[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Inhlonzabuso ehlelekile yethulwa eminyakeni ye-1960.U-Woody Bledsoe, u-Helen Chan Wolf, no-Charles Bisson beza nesu lokusebenzisa isiCikizi ukuba sihlonze ubuso babantu. Inkebengo yabo yenhlonzabuso yokuqala yabizwa ngokuthi "umuntu-nguxa" ngokuba ukuma kolwangu lobuso esithombeni kwakufanele kucaciswe ngumuntu kuqala ngaphambi kokusetshenziswa isiCikizi.