Chris Hani

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Chris Hani
Chris Hani
General Secretary of the South African Communist Party
Isikhathi:
1991–1993
Emva kwa Joe Slovo
uLandelwa Charles Nqakula
Deputy Commander of uMkhonto we Sizwe
President Oliver Tambo
Ukwazisa
Ubezalwa Martin Thembisile Hani
28 ngoNhlangula 1942(1942-06-28)
Cofimvaba, Transkei, South Africa
(now Cofimvaba, Eastern Cape, South Africa)
Wafa 10 ngoMbaso 1993(1993-04-10) (iminyaka ama-50)
Dawn Park, Boksburg, South Africa
(now Dawn Park, Ekurhuleni, Gauteng, South Africa)
Iqembu African National Congress
South African Communist

Chris Hani (28 Nhlangulana 1942 – 10 Mbasa 1993) [1]wazalwa ngelika Martin Thembisile Hani wabe engumholi weqeumbu lamakhomanisi eNingizimu Afrika elaziwa ngokuthi i-South African Communist Party (SACP) aphinde abe ngumsebenzi ophuzulu woMkhonto weSizwe. UHani wabe engumphikisi onolaka wohulumeni wobandlululo, wabulawa isigungu ngonyaka we-1993 [2].

Impilo Yobusha Nemfundo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UThembisile Hani wazalwa mahla zingama-28 kuNhlangulana 1942 edolobheni elincane eCofimvaba, eTranskei. Ngokuzalwa ungowesihlanu ezinganei eziyisithupha. Ngonyaka we-1957 uHani waya kofunda esikoleni i-Lovedale lapho ayeyoqedela khona iminyaka yokugcina emibili. Emfundweni useke waqeda amabanga amabili onyakeni owodwa kabili. Kwathi eseneminyaka eyi-12 emva kokuzwa ubaba wakhe echaza ngohlelo lobandlulo kanye neqembu le-African National Congress waba nexhala lonkungena kwi-ANC kodwa iminyaka yayingamvumeli, wayesemncane kakhulu [3]. Eseneminyaka engama-15 esikoleni saseLovedale uHani wajoyina uPhiko Lwentsha le-ANC (ANC Youth League), yize ukuzibandakanya kwezombuswazwe kwabe kungavumelekile ezikoleni zabamnyaka ngenkathi yobandlulo. Wagqugquzela abanye abufundi ukuba bajoyine iqembu le-ANC [3].

Ngonyaka we-1959 uHani wafunda isiNgisi, isiLathini, kanye nemibhalo yesimanje neyomdabu eNyuvesi yaseFort Hare endaweni yase-Alice eMpumalanga Kapa [3] and modern and classical literature.[4]. Akazange azibandakanye kwezemidlalo wacshunwa ethi,"Ngincamela ukuzibandakanya ekulweni nobandlulo kunokudlala ezemidlalo". UHani kwingxoxo aba nayo kwiWanki ikhampeni wabalula ukuthi wayethole iziqu zakhe eNyuvesi iRhodes [5].

Kwezombusazwe kanye nobuSosha[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Eseneminyaka engama-15 uHani wajoyina i-ANC Youth league njengesishoshovu sokulwa nholelo lwemfundo i-Bantu Education Act. Emva kokwethweswa iziqu zakhe wajoyina Umkhonto weSizwe (MK) okwabe kuwuphiko lezempi le-ANC. Emva kokuboshwa ngaphansi komtheto weSuppression of Communism Act, okwabe kuwumthetho ocindezela ubukhomanisi, waya ekubhaceni ezweni laseLesotho ngonyaka wezi-1963 [4]. Ngenxa yokuzibandakanya noMkhonto weSizwe uHani waphoqwa uhulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika ukuba aye ekudingisweni okuyilapho alishitsha igama likaTembisile wethiwa elikaChris [4].

Waqeqeshelwa kwezempi laseSoviet Union waphinda waba kwimkhankaso eMpini yeNkululeko eZimbabwe (Zimbabwe War of Liberation) ebuye ibizwe ngokuthi yi-Rhodesian Bush War. Kulemikhankaso Umkhonto weSizwe wabe usebenzisana neZimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army okwabe kuwuphiko lezempi laseZimbabwe elalilwela inkululeleko ngasekupheleni kweminyaka ye-1960s. Umsebenzi i-Luthuli Detachment waqinesekisa isithunzi sikaHani njengesosha embuthweni omnyama owathatha owangena empini nobandlululo kanye nablingani balo. Indima yakhe njengomulwi.......Ngonyaka we-1969 wabhalisana nabanye abayi-6, i-'Hani Memorandum 'eyayigxeka kakhulu ubuholi bukaJoe Modise, uMoses Kotane namanye amaqabane angabaholi. [6]

ELesotho wahlela umsebenzi wobuphekula we-MK eNingizimu Afrika. Ngowe-1982 uHani wabe esgqame kakhulu kungokuba kwasekhona imizamo yokumbulala, okwathi ekugcineni wathuthela ekomkhulu le-ANC eLusaka, eZambia. Njengenhloko ye-Umkhonto weSizwe, kwakungumsebenzi wakhe ukulwa nobudlova bamvukelambuso ayengahumbisabisani nobukhomanis kwi-ANC emakamu okuboshwa, kodwa wenqaba ukuthi wadlala indima ekuhlumezeni okuhlanganisa ukuzweisa ubuhlungu kanye nokubulala.[4]

Emva kokuchitha isikhathi eside emguhlanganisi wangasese eNingizimu Afrika phakathi neminyaka ye-1970s, wabuyela eNignizimu Afrika ngokugcwele emva kokususwa kwesinqabelo se-ANC ngonyaka we-1990, wathatha izintambo kuJo Slovo njengenhloko yeSouth African Communist Party mhla ziyi-8 kuZibandlela 1991.[7] Wayehambisana nokumiswa komzabalazo wempi we-ANC ukuvumela izingxoxo.[8]

Ukubulawa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UChris Hani wabulawa isigungu mhla zingama-10 kuMbasa 1993 ngaphandle kwekhaya lakhe eDawn Park, okuyindawo eesdolobheni laseBoksburg ehlala izinhlanga ezixubile. Wamiswa nguPholishi onguntamolkuhuni wokufika owabe engihambisani nobukhomanisi ogama lakhe nguJanusz Waluś owamdubula ngenkathi ephuma emotweni yakhe. UWalus wabaleka endewani yesigameko kodwa washeshe waboshwa emva kukuthi uMargareta Harmse, umama wamhlophe wase-Afrikaner, wabona uWalus ngqo ngemuva kwesigameko, ngenkathi edlula ngemoto, wathinta amaphoyisa. Umakhelwane kaChris Hani naye wabona kwenzeka lesi sigameko emva kwesikakathi wakhomba uWaluś kanye nemoto ayeyshayelo ngaleso sikhathi. UClive Derby-Lewis owabe eyilungu eliphezulu ePhalamende leSouth African Conservative Party owayephinde abe nguNgqonqgoshe oyisithunzi weZindaba zoMnotho ngaleso sikhathi, wayesanda kutsheleka uWaluś isibhamu, naye waboshwa ngegalelo lakhe ekubulaweni kukaHani.[9] I-Conservative Party yabe ihlubuke kwi-National Party (NP) eyayibusa ngokuphikisana nezinguquko zikaP.W. Botha. Ngemuva kokukhethwa kuka-1989, kwakuyiqembu lesithathu elinamandla kakhulu eNdlu yeMhlangano, ngemuva kweNP, futhi ephikisana nokuqedwa kobandlululo kukaF.W. de Klerk.

Ngokomlando, ukubulawa kubonakala njengokushintsha.....Uthuthuva olukhulu lwalandela emva kwalomshophi kwaba khona ingebhe yokuthi ezweni kungase kuqubuke udlame. UNelson Mandela wathula inkulumo eyibhekise esizweni enxenxa abantu ukuthi behlise umoya kule nkulum wabe athathwa njengo'Mongamemeli'nakuba wabe engakabu ngumongameli ngokusemthethweni wezwe:[10] Kusihlwa ngizama ukufinyelela kuwo wonke umuntu waseNingizimu Afrika, omnyama nomhlophe, ekujuleni kobuntu bami. Umuntu omhlophe, ogcwele ubandlululo nenzondo, weza ezweni lakithi futhi wenza isenzo esibi kangangokuthi isizwe sethu sonke manje sibhekene nenhlekelele. Sifazane omhlophe, osuka emaBhunwini, wafaka impilo yakhe engozini ukuze simazi, futhi alethe ubulungiswa, lo mbulali. Ukubulawa kukaChris Hani okunesihluku kwaletha ukushaqeka okukhulu ezweni lonke kanye nasemhlabeni.... Manje sekuyisikhathi sokuba bonke abantu baseNingizimu Afrika bame ndawonye ngokumelene nalabo, kusukela kunoma iyiphi ingxenye, bafisa ukubhubhisa lokho uChris Hani anikela ngempilo yakhe ukuze - inkululeko yethu sonke.

 Tonight I am reaching out to every single South African, black and white, from the very depths of my being. A white man, full of prejudice and hate, came to our country and committed a deed so foul that our whole nation now teeters on the brink of disaster. A white woman, of Afrikaner origin, risked her life so that we may know, and bring to justice, this assassin. The cold-blooded murder of Chris Hani has sent shock waves throughout the country and the world. ... Now is the time for all South Africans to stand together against those who, from any quarter, wish to destroy what Chris Hani gave his life for – the freedom of all of us.

Nakuba udlame aluqubukanga emva kwalomshophi, [9] izinhlangothi zombili zenqubo yokuxoxisana zaqhuba ngokushesha futhi kwaba nesivumelano sokuthi ukhetho lentando yeningi kufanele lwenzeke mhla zingama-27 kuMbasa 1994, emva konyaka ngemva kokubulawa kukaHani. [10]

Ukugwetshwa kwabulali kanye nokulalelwa koshwele[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Bobabili uJanusz Walus noClive Derby-Lewis bagwetshwa ngesigwebo sentambo ngecala lokubulala. UmkaDerby-Lewis, uGaye, watholakala emsulwa ecaleni lokubulala. Isigwebo salamdoda womabili kwaba ngesikadilikajele ngoba isigwebo sentambo sachithwa emva komyalelo osuka eNkantolo yoMthethosisekelo ngonyaka we-1995.[11]

Ababulali bakaHani bavele ngaphambi kweKhomishana yamaQiniso nokuBuyisana (Truth and Reconcilliation Commission (TRC)), babeka ukuthi babegqugquzelwa ezombusazwe ezenzweni zabo zobugebengu futhi babezofaka isicelo ushwele ekutheni babenze lesi senze ngenxa yomyalelo owabe uphuma kwiConservative Party. Umndeni wakwaHani umelelwe ngummeli owayelwa nobandlululo uGeorge Bizos.[12] Izicelo zabo zachithwa lapho i-TRC ikhipha umyalelo owawuthi laba bobabili babengathunywanga muntu [13]. Ngemuva kwemizamo eminingi eyayihluleka, uDerby-Lewis wanikezwa ushwele wezempilo ngoNhlaba wezi-2015, ngemuva kukuthola ukuthola ukuhti unomdlavuza wamaphaphu obulalayo, wadlula emhlabeni emva kwezinyanga ezingama-18, mhla zi-3 kuLwezi wezi-2016. [14]

Mhla zi-10 kuNdasa 2016, iNkantolo eNkulu yaseNingizimu Afrika eseNyakatho eGauteng, yayala ukuthi uWalus akhishwe ngoshwele futhi inikezwe izimo zebheyili. UMnyango Wezobulungiswa Nezinsizakalo Zokuqondisa Izigwegwe wafaka isikhalo ngesiqumo sashwele, eNkantolo Ephakeme Yokwedlulisa Izikhalazo eBloemfontein. [15] Umnyango wezaseKhaya ungahoxisa ubuzwe bakhe baseNingizimu Afrika. [15]

Imibono ehlukene ngokubulawa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukubulawa kukaHani kwaheha amahebezi eminingi emayelana nokubandakanyekanyeka kwabangaphandle. Umbiko wokugcina we-TRC wona wathi, "awukwazanga ukuthola ubufakazi bokuthi laba ababili ababeboshelwe ukubulala uChris Hani babelandela umnyelelo ophuma enzinhlanganweni zaphesheya, amaqembu ezokuphepha okanye ovela phezulu embuthweni yonantamolukhuni" [16].

Imfundiso[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

UHano wabe engumholi....futhi onokwesekwa okukhulu yintsha eyabe ilwa nobandlululo. Ngesikhathi edlula emhlabeni wabe engumholi odumeile we-ANC ukulandela uNelson Mandela futhi ngezinye izikhathi wayebhekwa njengesitha ebuholini benhlangano bangaleso sikhathi [13]. Ukulandela ukwenziwa kwe-ANC ibe semthethweni, ukweseka kukaHani inqubo yokuxoxisana nohulumeni wobandlululo kwakubaluleke kakhulu ekugcineni amabutho esemqgeni [17].

Ukuhlonishwa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngonyaka we-1993 isazi sefilosofi saseFrance uJacques Derrida wanikezela i-Specter de Marx kuHani. Ngonyaka we-1997 Isibhedlela iBargwanath, okungesinye sezibhedlela ezinkulu emhlabeni, yaqanjwa kabusha yaibazwa ngokuthi yiChris Hani Baragwanath Hospital ukumkhumbula [18]. NgoMandulo we-2004 uHani wakhethwa waba ngowama-20 kwabayi-100 kabakhulu eNingizimu Afrika. [19]

Ezinsukwini emva kokubulwa kwakhe, iqembu lomculo we-rock iDave Matthews Band (omculi ophambili kanye nomshayi wesigcingci ngu Dave Matthews, ongowokudabuka eNgingizimu Afrika) ukudlala kulokho okwagcina kungu "#36". Okuqukethwe kokuqala kwakuqukethe izinhlamvu zomculo ezimayelana nokudutshulwa kukaHani. Izinguqulo zakamuva, uHani wabe esemqondweni kaHani, futhi wayephindaphinda umucu othi:"Hani, Hani come and dance with me" okwagcina sekuyikhorasi yeculo. Kamuva uMatthews wayekholelwa ukuthi iculo laba linokunama okanye injabulo eningi kunendikimba ayeyihlosile, ngalokho walishintsha lathi:"Honey." Laba yintandokazi iminyaka, umculo wasombuluka waba isisekelo sesingili yowezi-2001, "Everyday"Ukwethulwa kwengoma kule fomu yokugcina, yaba ngethandwa ngabantu abaningi nge-2001, iqala ngezihlwele zicula umucu "Honey" futhi izihlwele kanye neqembu, ngokuvamile basebenzisa ukuvala ingoma futhi [20][21].

I-Opera emfushane, Hani eyayibhalwe nguBongani Ndodana-Breen kanye ne-libretto ikhiqizwe ngumkhiqizi wamafilimu uMfundi Vundla banikwa igunya lokuyenza yi-Cape Town Opera kanye neNyuvesi yaseKapa yakhonjiswa okokuqala eBaxter Theatre mhla zi-21 kuLwezi 2010 [22][23].

UMasipala wesifunda eMpumalanga Kapa wabizwa ngokuthi uMasipala wesiFunda saseChris Hani. Lesi sifunda sihlanganisa i-Queenstown, Cofimvaba no-Lady Frere [24] . UMasipala waseKhaya waseThembisile Hani eMpumalanga nawo ubizwa ngegama lakhe.

Ngezi-2009, ngemuva kokunwetshwa kweCentral Line eKapa, i-terminus entsha ephakela izindawo esizempumalanga yeKhayelitsha yethiwa elikaChris Hani.[25]

Imithombo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. Chris Hani (1991). "My Life, An autobiography written in 1991". SA Communist Party. http://www.sacp.org.za/main.php?ID=2294. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  2. "The Death of Chris Hani: An African Misadventure - The O'Malley Archives". https://omalley.nelsonmandela.org/omalley/index.php/site/q/03lv02424/04lv03370/05lv03422.htm. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Van Wyk, Chris (2003). Chris Hani. South Africa: Awareness publishing. p. 13. ISBN 1919910131. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Martin Thembisile (Chris) Hani". About.com. http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa-BioChrisHani-a.htm. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  5. Template:Cite AV media
  6. The ‘Hani Memorandum’ – introduced and annotated by Hugh Macmillan Template:Webarchive, Transformation, 2009
  7. http://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/chris-hani-elected-sacp-secretary
  8. Hani, Chris (February 1991). "My Life". South African Communist Party. http://www.sacp.org.za/main.php?include=docs/biography/2006/hani.html. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Hani Truth hearing resumes". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/65954.stm. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sparks, Allister (1994). Tomorrow is Another Country. Struik. 
  11. https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2014-10-08-chris-hani-and-the-arms-deal-bombshell-a-death-that-still-hangs-over-us/
  12. "Waluś denies Hani killing was his idea". Dispatch. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20081205150722/http://www.dispatch.co.za/1997/11/27/page%2019.htm. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 "Hani killers denied amnesty". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/313782.stm. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  14. "My husband is finally free - Gaye Derby-Lewis". News24. http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/my-husband-is-finally-free-gaye-derby-lewis-20161103?isapp=true. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Janusz Walus fights to retain his SA citizenship". http://www.sabc.co.za/news/a/668707804dfd9516a5f4ad0ede96a075/Janusz-Walus-fights-to-retain-his-SA-citizenship-20162508. Retrieved 16 September 2016. 
  16. "Conclusions about the Chris Hani Assassination". Africanhistoryabout.com. http://africanhistory.about.com/od/apartheiddocuments/a/TRC-Hani.htm. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  17. Mzamane, Nthoana and Mbulelo (July 1993). "Obituary: Hamba Kahle Chris Hani: 1942-1993". Southern Africa Report 9 (1): 22. http://www.africafiles.org/article.asp?ID=4047. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  18. The history of the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital Template:Webarchive, chrishanibaragwanathhospital.co.za (accessed 3 November 2016)
  19. "Top 100 Greatest South Africans" (in en-US). 2013-10-13. http://www.youthvillage.co.za/2013/10/top-100-greatest-south-africans/. 
  20. "Song Listing for "#36"". DMBAlmanac.com². http://www.dmbalmanac.com/SongStats.aspx?sid=36. 
  21. Martell, Nevin. "Dave Matthews Band: Music for the People", p. 57. Simon and Schuster, 2004.
  22. Tonight - 'Bonsai opera' revitalises genre, tonight.co.za
  23. Karen Rutter. "The struggle continues". Times LIVE. http://www.timeslive.co.za/sundaytimes/article768640.ece/The-struggle-continues. Retrieved 3 November 2016. 
  24. "About Us – Chris Hani District Municipality" (in en-US). http://www.chrishanidm.gov.za/about-us/. 
  25. "New trains for Khayelitsha residents". West Cape News. http://westcapenews.com/?p=866. Retrieved 3 November 2016.