Nelson Mandela

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His Excellency Nelson Mandela OMP OM GCFR AC CC OJ GCStJ QC GCIH RSerafO NPk
Mandela in Johannesburg in May 2008
1st President of South Africa
Isikhathi:
10 May 1994 – 16 June 1999
Deputy Thabo Mbeki
F. W. de Klerk
Emva kwa F. W. de Klerk (State President)
uLandelwa Thabo Mbeki
11th President of the
African National Congress
Isikhathi:
7 July 1991 – 20 December 1997
Deputy Walter Sisulu
Thabo Mbeki
Emva kwa Oliver Tambo
uLandelwa Thabo Mbeki
19th Secretary General of the
Non-Aligned Movement
Isikhathi:
2 September 1998 – 16 June 1999
Emva kwa Andrés Pastrana Arango
uLandelwa Thabo Mbeki
Ukwazisa
Ubezalwa Rolihlahla Mandela
18 ngoNtulikazi 1918(1918-07-18)
Mvezo, Cape Province, South Africa
Wafa 5 ngoZibendlela 2013(2013-12-05) (iminyaka ama-95)
Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
Resting place Mandela Graveyard
Qunu, Eastern Cape, South Africa
Iqembu African National Congress
Other political
affiliations
South African Communist Party
Ubeshada
Abantwana 6 (including Makgatho, Makaziwe, Zenani and Zindziswa)
Alma mater Template:Plain list
Occupation Template:Flatlist
Known for Anti-Apartheid Movement
Awards Template:Plain list
Notable work(s) Long Walk to Freedom
Website nelsonmandela.org
Iziga Template:Flatlist

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela ( /m AE n d ɛ l ə / ; [1] Xhosa:  ; 18 Julayi 1918   - 5 Disemba 2013) kwaba zaseNingizimu Afrika sobandlululo wamavukelambuso, umholi wezombangazwe, futhi UMuphi owakhonza njengesithunywa uMongameli waseNingizimu Afrika kusukela ngo-1994 kuya 1999. Wayengumuntu ikhanda lokuqala wezwe black zekhethelo ngowokuqala akhethwe ngendlela omele ngokugcwele ukhetho yeningi. Uhulumeni wakhe wagxila ekunciphiseni ifa lobandlululo ngokulwa nobandlululo oluyisikhungo futhi wagqugquzela ukulugiswa kwengxabanongokobuhlanga. Ideologically isizwe sase-Afrika kanye sezenhlalo, wakhonza njengephayona uMongameli we -African National Congress (ANC) party kusukela ngo-1991 kuya ku-1997.

Abantu abangama-Xhosa, uMandela wazalelwa emndenini wasebukhosini abaThembu eMvezo, eBritish South Africa . Ufunde umthetho e- University of Fort Hare nase- University of Witwatersrand ngaphambi kokusebenza njengommeli eGoli . Lapho, wazibandakanya kwipolitiki elwa nobumboni kanye nobuzwe base-Afrika, wajoyina i-ANC ngonyaka we-1943 futhi wabumba iNhlangano Yentsha yayo ngo-1944. Ngemuva kokuthi uhulumeni we- National Party omhlophe kuphela asungule ubandlululo, okuwuhlelo lokubandlululwa ngokobuhlanga oluhlomulisa abelungu, yena ne-ANC bazibophezela ekubhukuleni. UMandela waqokwa njengoMongameli wegatsha le- Transvaal le-ANC, wenyuka waba yimbangi ngokubandakanyeka kwakhe eMkhankasweni Wokuhlubuka ngo-1952 kanye neCongress of People yango -1955. Waphinde waboshwa ngenxa yemisebenzi yokuvukela umbuso futhi wamangalelwa ngecala lokuzama ukuqulwa kwecala lika- 1956 . Ethonywe uMarxism, wajoyina ngasese iqembu laseNingizimu Afrika lamaKhomanisi (i-SACP) elivinjelwe. Nakuba ekuqaleni uzibophezele ezingenalo udlame, sikanye iSACP co-wasungula nenkani weSizwe ngo-1961 futhi lokho kwaholela ukuketula umkhankaso ulwa nohulumeni. Waboshwa wagqunywa ejele ngo-1962, kwathi ngemuva kwalokho wagwetshwa udilikajele ngokuqothula umbuso ngokulandela Icala laseRivonia .

UMandela wadonsa iminyaka engama-27 ejele, wahlukanisa phakathi kweRobben Island, nePollmoor Prison neVictor Verster Prison . Phezu kokucindezela okukhulayo kwasekhaya nakwamanye amazwe, futhi ngokwesaba impi yombango yobuhlanga, uMongameli uFW de Klerk wamkhulula ngonyaka we-1990. UMandela no de Klerk bahola imizamo yokuxoxisana ngokuphela kobandlululo, okwaholela okhethweni jikelele lwezinhlanga ezi-1994 lapho uMandela ahola khona i-ANC yanqoba futhi yaba ngumongameli. Ehola uhulumeni wobumbano obanzi owamisa umthethosisekelo omusha, uMandela wagcizelela ukubuyisana phakathi kwezinhlanga zezwe futhi wasungula neKhomishini Yamaqiniso Nokubuyisana ukuze iphenye ukuhlukunyezwa kwamalungelo abantu okwedlule. Ngokwezezomnotho, ukuphathwa kukaMandela kugcina uhlaka lwenkululeko lwalowo owabe eyandulela leyo yize ayenezinkolelo zakhe zokuhlalisana nabanye, futhi wethula nezindlela zokukhuthaza ukubuyiswa komhlaba, ukulwa nobuphofu kanye nokwandisa izinsizakalo zezempilo. Emhlabeni jikelele, wasebenza njengomlamuli ecaleni lokuqhuma kwamabhomu iPan Am Flight 103 futhi wasebenza njengoNobhala-Jikele weNhlangano Engahlanganyeli kusukela ngo-1998 kuya ku-1999. Unqabile ihlandla lesibili likamongameli, kwathi ngo-1999 kwathathelwa isikhundla yiphini lakhe, uMnuz Thabo Mbeki . UMandela waba yisikhulu esidala futhi wagxila ekulweni nobuphofu kanye negciwane lesandulela ngculaza kanye nengculazi ngeNelson Mandela Foundation.

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