Nelson Mandela

From Wikipedia
His Excellency
Nelson Mandela
OM AC CC OJ GCStJ QC GColIH RSerafO NPk BR MRCSI
Nelson Mandela on his 90th birthday in 2008.
Mandela in 2008
Umongameli waseNingizimu Afrika
Isikhathi:
10 ngoNhlaba 1994 – 14 ngoNhlangula 1999
Deputy Thabo Mbeki
Frederik Willem de Klerk
Emva kwa Frederik Willem de Klerk
As Umongameli waseNingizimu Afrika
uLandelwa Thabo Mbeki
19th unobhalajikelele we-Non-Aligned Movement
Isikhathi:
2 ngoMandulo 1998 – 14 ngoNhlangula 1999
Emva kwa Andrés Pastrana Arango
uLandelwa Thabo Mbeki
Ukwazisa
Ubezalwa Rolihlahla Mandela
18 ngoNtulikazi 1918(1918-07-18)
Mvezo, Ubunye waseNingizimu Afrika
Wafa 5 ngoZibendlela 2013(2013-12-05) (iminyaka ama-95)
IGoli
Uhlobo abAfrika waseningizimu
Iqembu African National Congress
Ubeshada Evelyn Ntoko Mase (1944–1957)
Winnie Madikizela (1957–1996)
Graça Machel (1998–manje)
Abantwana 6
Alma mater University of Fort Hare
University of London External System
UNISA
University of the Witwatersrand
iSignesha Signature of Nelson Mandela
Website Mandela Foundation

uNelson Rolihlahla Mandela (isiXhosa pronunciation: [xoˈliːɬaɬa manˈdeːla]; 18 ngoNtulikazi 19185 ngoZibandlela 2013)[1] ungumuntu ohlonishwayo kakhulu emhlabeni ngoba uyena umongameli wokuqala owabekwa emva kobandlululo. Umnumzane lo owaziwa kakhulu njengoTata uMadiba uthanda izwe lakhe ngoba waboshwa iminyaka engamashumi amabili nesikhombisa elwela izwe. Kodwa ngonyaka ka 1990 wakhululwa emva kwalokho wabekwa njengomongameli WeNingizimu Afrika ngonyaka ka 1994. Loludaba lubaluleke kakhulu emlandweni wabantu base Ningizimu Afrika.

Ukukhula: 1918-1936[hlela | edit source]

uTata Madiba ngosuku lakaSisulu lomushado
uTata Nelson Mandela

OkaMadiba wazalwa 18 ngoNtulikazi 1918 endaweni yaseMvezo eMpumalanga Kapa. Abazali bakhe kwakunguGadla Henry Mphakanyiswa Mandela, owayeyinkosi eMvezo, kanye nonkosikazi wakhe wesithathu uNosekeni Fanny wakaMpemvu, owayeyindodazi kaNkedama. Wethiwa ngegama elithi Rolihlahla. Ukhokho wakhe, uNgubengcuka, wayengumholi wesizwe samaThembu. Omunye wamadodana akhe, wethiwa ngegama likaMandela. Nguyenake owaba ngumkhulu kaMandela kanti nasoke lesisibongo sikaMandela sasukela lapho. Kwathi ngonyaka 1915 uGadla walahlekelwa yisikhundla sakhe sobukhosi.

UMandela, kanye nodadewabo ababili, bakhuliswa ngunina emzini waseQunu. Yilapho ayelusa khona izinkomo kanye nabanye abafana. Nokho abazali bakhe babengafundile, unina wamthumela esikoleni eseminyakeni elinganela isikhombisa. Wabhajadiswa. Uthisha wakhe wametha igama elithi Nelson. Kwathi lapho iminyaka isililnganela isishiyagalolunye, uyise weza wazohlala eQunu lapho abulawa yisifo uMandela ayekholelwa ukuthi ngesofuba.

"Wayengekho emndenini wami owayeke wangena isikole [...] Osukwini lwami lokuqala esikoleni, uthishela wami, unkosazana Mdingane, wasipha amagama esingisi. Lokhu kwasekulisiko kulezozinsuku ngenxa yemfundo eyayiphethwe ngamaNgisi. Ngalolosuku, unkosazana Mdingane wathi igama lami elisha nguNelson. Angazi yingani angetha leligama." - Mandela, 1994.

uKuboshwa neCala lase Rivonia: 1962-1964[hlela | edit source]

iKhaya likaTata uNelson Mandela eSoweto eGoli phambi kokuba ayeJele

Ngomhlaka 5 August 1962, amaphoyisa athumba uTata uMandela kanye noCecil Williams eduze nase Howick. Amaqembu amaningi asolwa ngokuxwayisa amaphoyisa ngokuthi uTata uMandela ukuphi, kufaka nomenzi waTata uMandela eThekwini G. R Naidoo, abantu abamhlophe be-South African Communist Party kanye ne CIA, kodwa uTata uMandela akakhethanga neyodwa kulezinhlanganiso . Isisebenzi sikaTata uMandela u-Anthony Sampson wayekholwa ukuthi ukuboshwa kukaTata ngeke kuhoxiswe. Waboshelwa ejele  laseGoli e-Marshall Square, waboshelwa ukuhamba kuleli ngaphandle kwemvumo, ukuzazisa njengoMluleki wezomthetho. uTata uMandela wabukisa enkantolo "imizwa ye -ANC ngokucwasana "abaseki bephethe amabhodi ngaphandle kweNkantolo abhalwe izinto abangazithandi azazenziwa kubantu abamnyama. Kwayiwa ePitoli lapho uWinnie Madikizela Mandela azomuvakashela khona waqala ngokwenza izifundo zokuba uMmeli eNyuvesi yase London. Icala lakhe laqala ngomhlaka 15 Mfumfu,  kodwa waphazamisa ukuqhubeka ngokugqoka impahla yesintu, enqaba ukubiza ofakazi, watholakala enecala, wagwetshwa iminyaka emihlanu ejele, abaseki bakhe bacula Nkosi Sikeleli iAfrika.

Ihhovisi LikaMongameli WaseNingizimu Afrika : 1994-1999[hlela | edit source]

uMongameli uBill Clinton noMongameli uNelson Mandela ePhiladelphia ngomhlaka 4 Ntulikazi 1993 

Umhlangano kazwelonke osanda kuqokwa isenzo sokuqala kwaba ngokusemthethweni ukukhetha uTata uMandela njengomholi wokuqala onsundu eNingizumu Afrika. Ukugcotshwa kwakhe kwathatha indawo ePitoli ngomhlaka 10 May 1994, kwavezwa kumabonakude emhlabeni jikelele. Lomcimbi ubuhanjelwe abantu abayi 4000, kuhlanganiswa nabaholi bamazwe angafani. uTata uMandela eholwa uHulumeni wazwelonke obuswa I-ANC -yodwa yayingenalo ulwazi lokubusa kodwa wayequkethe abantu beqembu I-National Party kanye neNkatha. Ngaphansi komthethosisekelo wesikhashana,  iNkatha kanye ne-National Party bagqugquzelwa ukuthi babenezihlalo ezingu 20 ePalamende. Ukugcina isivumelwano sasekuqaleni, uMnumzane u-De Klerk waba iphini lokuqala likaMongameli kanye noThabo Mbeki wakhethwa waba owesibili. Noma uMnumzane Thabo Mbeki engazange abe owokuqala okhethweni,  uTata uMandela wancika kuye isikhathi sonke ekubeni uMongameli,  emvumela ukuthi ahlele imininingwano yenqubomgono. Ukuye hhovisi lobuMongameli e-Tuynhuys eKapa,  uTata uMandela wavumela u-De Klerk ukuthi agcine indawo yaMongameli e-Groote Schuur estate, kunokuhlala endaweni esondelene ne-Westbrooke manor,  wayetha kabusha wayibiza "Genadendal". uTata uMandela ebenekhaya endaweni yase Makhaya eQunu,  ebenokuya ayovakasha, ejikajike endaweni, ahlangane nabantu bendawo.

uKushona kanye Nomuncwabo [05 Zibandlela 2013][hlela | edit source]

uMhlangano we Sikhumbuzo sakaTata Nelson Mandela eFNB Stadium Soweto eGoli

 

Emva kokugula isikhathi eside ngesifo samaphaphu, uTata Nelson Mandela washona ngomhlaka 5 Zibandlela 2013 eminyakeni eyishuminambili nesithupha. Washona ngo 20:50 (UTC+2) ekhaya lakhe e-Houghton, eGoli ezungezwe umndeni wakhe. uMongameli Jacob Zuma wamemezela ukushona kwakhe kumabonakude. uMongameli Jacob Zuma wadumisa ukuzilelwa kwakhe amalanga ayishumi, wenza umhlaka 8 Zibandlela ilanga Lezwe ngokuthandaza nangemicabango yakaTata Nelson Mandela, kuhlanganelwe eGoli FNB Stadium ngomhlaka 10 Zibandlela 2013. Isidumbu sakaTata Nelson Mandela sabekwa e-Union Buildings ngomhlaka 11-13 Zibandlela e-Pretoria emuva kwalokho wancwatshelwa eQunu ngomhlaka 15 Zibandlela 2013 lapho azalelwa khona. Abantu bamazwe angaphandle bafika ngobuningi emncwabeni wakhe, omunye wabo kwakungu Mongameli wase U.S.A uMongameli uBarack Obama.  

Reference[hlela | edit source]

2. "uKushona kanye nomngcwabo 2013" - SOURCE: Nontuthuko Vilakazi 22 September 2015.

3. "uKuboshwa neCala lase Rivonia: 1962-1964" - SOURCE: Nontuthuko Vilakazi 22 September 2015.

4. "Ihhovisi LikaMongameli WaseNingizimu Afrika: 1994-1999"- SOURCE: Nontuthuko Vilakazi 22 September 2015.