Carbon dioxide

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Carbon dioxide

I-Carbon dioxide ( ifomula yamakhemikhali Template:CO2</br> Template:CO2 ) yigesi engenambala engenambala ene-density ecishe ibe ngama-53% ngaphezulu kunaleyo yomoya owomile.Carbon dioxide molecule kuqukathe carbon athomu covalently double eziboshiwe ezimbili -mpilo ama-athomu.Kwenzeka ngokwemvelo emkhathini womhlaba njenge- trace gas . Ukuhlushwa kwamanje kungu-0.04% (412 ppm ) ngevolumu, njengoba isikhuphukile kusuka emazingeni angaphambi kwezimboni angama-280 i-ppm. Imithombo yemvelo zihlanganisa izintaba-mlilo, iziphethu ezishisayo futhi iziphethu, futhi ebugqilini amatshe carbonate ngu nokonakala emanzini futhi acid. Ngoba i-carbon dioxide iyancibilika emanzini, ivela ngokwemvelo emanzini angaphansi komhlaba, imifula namachibi, izingqimba zeqhwa, izinguzunga zeqhwa nasemanzini olwandle.Itholakala ekufakeni i- petroleum negesi yemvelo.I-Carbon dioxide inephunga elibukhali neline-asidi futhi ikhiqiza ukunambitheka kwamanzi e-soda emlonyeni. [1]Kodwa-ke, ekugxileni okuhlangana nakho ngokuvamile akunaphunga.

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Isakhiwo seCrystal seqhwa elomile

ICarbon dioxide kwakuyigesi yokuqala echazwa njengezinto ezihlukile.Cishe ngo-1640, [2] we lase wemithi Jan Baptist van Helmont yaphawula ukuthi lapho wazishisa namalahle esitsheni evaliwe, nenqwaba umphumela umlotha yayiningi kunalawo namalahle yasekuqaleni.Incazelo yakhe yayiwukuthi wonke amalahle ayedluliselwe entweni engabonakali ayibiza ngokuthi "igesi" noma "umoya wasendle" (i- spiritus sylvestris ).

Izakhiwo zamakhemikhali nezomzimba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Isakhiwo, ukubopha nokudlidliza kwamangqamuzana[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  Ukulinganisa kwe-molecule ye-carbon dioxide kuqondile kanye ne-centrosymmetric ku-geometry yayo yokulingana. Ubude besibopho se- carbon-oxygen ku-carbon dioxide bungu-116.3 pm, mfushane ngokuphawulekayo kunobude obucishe bube ngu-140-pm besibopho esijwayelekile se-O-O, futhi sifushane kunamanye amaqembu amaningi asebenza ngokubopha ama-C-O njenge- carbonyls.Njengoba i-centrosymmetric, i-molecule ayinaso isikhashana se-dipole kagesi.

Ukwelula nokugoba kwe -molecule ye-CO 2 carbon dioxide. Phezulu kwesobunxele: ukuzolula okulinganayo. Phezulu kwesokudla: ukwelulwa okungalingani. Umugqa ophansi: izindlela ezigoqekayo zokubhangqa.

Kwisixazululo samanzi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  I-Carbon dioxide iyancibilika emanzini, lapho ibuyela emuva ibuye ibumbe H</br> H CO</br> H (i- carbonic acid ), eyi- asidi ebuthakathaka ngoba i-ionization yayo emanzini ayiphelele.

CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3

Ukuhlala kwe-hydration equilibrium kwe-carbonic acid kuyinto (ngo-25 ° C). Ngakho-ke, iningi le-carbon dioxide aliguqulwa libe yi-carbonic acid, kepha lihlala njengama- molecule e-CO 2, angathinti i-pH.

Ukugxila okuhlobene kwe- CO</br> CO, HCO CO CO kanye deprotonated amafomu HCO-</br> HCO ( bicarbonate ) ne- CO2−</br> CO ( carbonate ) incike kwi- pH.Njengoba kukhonjisiwe esakhiweni seBjerrum, emanzini angathathi hlangothi noma ane-alkaline encane (pH> 6.5), ifomu le-bicarbonate ligcwele (> 50%) liba kakhulu (> 95%) ku-pH yamanzi olwandle.Emanzini ane-alkaline kakhulu (pH> 10.4), ifomu elivelele (> 50%) yi-carbonate.Izilwandle, njengoba zine-alkaline emnene ene-pH ejwayelekile = 8.2-8.5, ziqukethe cishe i-120 mg we-bicarbonate ngelitha ngalinye.

Ukuba yi- diprotic, i-carbonic acid inezakhi ezimbili zokuhlukaniswa kwe-asidi, eyokuqala yokuhlukaniswa kwe-bicarbonate (ebizwa nangokuthi i-hydrogen carbonate) ion (HCO 3 - ):

H 2 CO 3 ⇌ HCO 3 - + H +
K a1 = 2.5× 10 −4 mol / L ; p K a1 = 3.6 ku-25 ° C.

Lokhu kungukuhlala kweqiniso kwe-acid dissociation okuchazwa njenge , lapho i-denominator ifaka kuphela i-covalently binded H 2 CO 3 futhi ingafaki i-hydrated CO 2 (aq). Inani elincanyana kakhulu futhi elicashunwa njalo eliseduze no- 4.16× 10 −7 liyinani elibonakalayo elibalwe ekucabangeni (okungalungile) kokuthi yonke i-CO 2 encibilikile ikhona njenge-carbonic acid, ukuze . Njengoba iningi le-CO 2 elichithakele lihlala njengamamolekyu e-CO 2, i- K a1 (ebonakalayo) inesilinganiso esikhulu kakhulu nenani elincane kakhulu kune- K a1 yangempela.

I- bicarbonate ion iyinhlobo ye- amphoteric engasebenza njenge-asidi noma njengesisekelo, kuya nge-pH yesisombululo.Ku- pH ephezulu, yehlukanisa kakhulu ne- carbonate ion (CO 3 2− ):

I-HCO 3 - ⇌ CO 3 2− + H +
K a2 = 4.69× 10 -11 mol / L ; p K a2 = 10.329

Ezidalweni ukukhiqizwa kwe-carbonic acid kukhishwa yi- enzyme, i- carbonic anhydrase.

Izakhiwo zomzimba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Amapellets "eqhwa elomile", ifomu elijwayelekile le-carbon dioxide eqinile

I-Carbon dioxide ayinambala. Ezingxenyeni eziphansi igesi ayinaphunga; noma kunjalo, ekugxileni okwanele ngokwanele, inephunga elibukhali, eline-esidi.Ekushiseni okujwayelekile nokucindezela, ubukhulu be-carbon dioxide buzungeze u-1.98 kg / m 3, cishe izikhathi eziyi-1.53 zomoya.

ICarbon dioxide ayinaso isimo 0.517engaphansi kuka-0.517 95 (10) I-MPa [3] ( 5.11177 (99) i-atm ). 0.101 kwe-1 atm ( 0.101 MPa ), igesi ifaka ngqo esiqinile emazingeni okushisa angaphansi kuka- 194.6855(30) I-K [4] ( −78.4645(30) ° C ) kanye nezimbumbulu eziqinile ngqo kwigesi engaphezulu kwaleli zinga lokushisa. Esimeni sayo esiqinile, isikhutha ngokuvamile ibizwa ngokuthi yiqhwa elomile .

Ingcindezi yesigaba sokushisa se-carbon dioxide. Qaphela ukuthi yishadi le-log-lin.

Izicelo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

ICarbon dioxide isetshenziswa yimboni yokudla, imboni kawoyela, kanye nemboni yamakhemikhali. [5]Le nhlanganisela inokusetshenziswa okuhlukahlukene kokuhweba kepha okunye ukusetshenziswa kwayo okukhulu njengekhemikhali ukukhiqizwa kweziphuzo ezinekhabhoni; inikeza ukukhanya kweziphuzo ezine-carbonated ezifana namanzi we-soda, ubhiya newayini elikhazimulayo.

Isandulela samakhemikhali[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Embonini yamakhemikhali, isikhutha sidliwa kakhulu njengesithako ekukhiqizeni i- urea, kusetshenziswa ingxenyana encane ukukhiqiza i- methanol nohla lweminye imikhiqizo.Ezinye izakhi ze-carboxylic acid ezifana ne- sodium salicylate zilungiswa kusetshenziswa i-CO 2 yi- Kolbe-Schmitt reaction.

Ngaphezu kwezinqubo ezijwayelekile ezisebenzisa i-CO 2 yokukhiqiza amakhemikhali, izindlela ze-electrochemical nazo ziyahlolwa ezingeni locwaningo.Ikakhulu, ukusetshenziswa kwamandla avuselelekayo ekukhiqizeni uphethiloli ovela ku-CO 2 (njenge-methanol) kuyaheha ngoba lokhu kungaholela ekubaseni okungathuthwa kalula futhi kusetshenziswe ngaphakathi kobuchwepheshe obuvamile bomlilo kepha kungabikho ukukhishwa kwe- CO 2. [6]

Izitshalo zidinga i-carbon dioxide ukuqhuba i- photosynthesis.Umkhathi wezindawo zokugcina izithombo (uma ngabe usayizi omkhulu, kufanele) ucebiswe nge-CO 2 eyengeziwe ukugcina nokukhuphula izinga lokukhula kwezitshalo.Ngezinye lokuhlala eliphezulu kakhulu (izikhathi 100 lokuhlushwa asemkhathini, noma ngaphezulu), i-carbon dioxide angaba enobuthi ekuphileni isilwane, ngakho nokuvusa okuhlushwa ukuze 10,000 ppm (1%) noma ngaphezulu amahora ambalwa uyoqeda izinambuzane ezifana whiteflies futhi izibungu spider endaweni abamba ukushisa. [7]

Ekudleni[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

ICARBON DIOXIDE esiphuzweni

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. Carbonated (Sparkling) Water: Good or Bad? healthline.com
  2. DavidFraser Harris (September 1910). The Pioneer in the Hygiene of Ventilation. https://zenodo.org/record/2088803. 
  3. Span, Roland; Wagner, Wolfgang (1996-11-01). "A New Equation of State for Carbon Dioxide Covering the Fluid Region from the Triple‐Point Temperature to 1100 K at Pressures up to 800 MPa". Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 25 (6): 1519. Bibcode 1996JPCRD..25.1509S. doi:10.1063/1.555991. ISSN 0047-2689. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.555991. 
  4. Span, Roland; Wagner, Wolfgang (1996-11-01). "A New Equation of State for Carbon Dioxide Covering the Fluid Region from the Triple‐Point Temperature to 1100 K at Pressures up to 800 MPa". Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 25 (6): 1521. Bibcode 1996JPCRD..25.1509S. doi:10.1063/1.555991. ISSN 0047-2689. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.555991. 
  5. Pierantozzi, Ronald (2001). Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley. doi:10.1002/0471238961.0301180216090518.a01.pub2. ISBN 978-0-471-23896-6. 
  6. Badwal, Sukhvinder P. S.; Giddey, Sarbjit S.; Munnings, Christopher; Bhatt, Anand I.; Hollenkamp, Anthony F. (24 September 2014). "Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies (open access)". Frontiers in Chemistry 2: 79. Bibcode 2014FrCh....2...79B. doi:10.3389/fchem.2014.00079. PMC Template:=pmcentrez&artidTemplate:=4174133 4174133. PMID 25309898. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4174133. 
  7. Stafford, Ned (7 February 2007). "Future crops: The other greenhouse effect". Nature 448 (7153). Bibcode 2007Natur.448..526S. doi:10.1038/448526a.