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INguqulo yeziMboni yesine

Mayelana Wikipedia
Inguquko yeziMboni yesiNe. Top-left: izithununu zisebenza ngohlakahlisombulu emtapho. Top-right: Isibhebhe esijotshelelwe esikhongca umdwebo nesibhalwa esiku-Wikipediaa. Bottom-left: umfanekiso woxhakaxholo lwezinto. Bottom-right: abakhozi basebenzisa i-Amazon Go, lapho beyothenga esitolo.

INguquko yesiNe yeziMboni, 4IR, [1] icabangisisa ushintsho olusheshayo kwezobuchwepheshe, izimboni, nezifanelo zomphakathi kanye nezinqubo ekhulwini lama-21 ngenxa yokwanda kokuxhumana kanye nehleleleko esithatha. Leli gama lisetshenziswa kabanzi ezincwadini zenzululwazi, futhi ngowezi-2015 ladunyiswa ngu-Klaus Schwab, umsunguli nosihlalo wesiDlangala sezoMnotho soMhlaba (The World Economic Forum). U-Schwab wagamela ngokuthi izinguquko esizibonayo zingaphezu kokuthuthukiswa ukuze sisebenze kahle, kodwa ziveza ukugudluka okuphawulekayo kwezobugombelakwesakhe bezemboni.


Ingxenye yalesigaba soshintsho lwezimboni ukuhlanganiswa kwezobuchwepheshe ezifana nohlakahlisombulu, ukuhlela izifuzisi (gene editing), kuya kwezezithununu ezithuthukisiwe ezifiphaza umehluko phakathi kwezwe loqobo, lwezezibhangqiwe, nelemvelo.

Kukho konke lokhu, ukugudluka okuyisisekelo okwenzekayo endleleni uxhoxho lokukhiqiza nokuhlinzeka lomhlaba eligidinga ngayo ngokuhlelelekwa okuqhubekayo kwezindlela zokukhiqiza nokukhanda zakuqala, kusetshenziswa ezobuchwepheshe ezintwesi zanamuhla, ukuxhumana kwezinga elikhulu kwenguxa-nenguxa (M2M), kanye noxhakaxholo lwezinto (IoT). Lokhu kuhlayizwa kube nomphumela wukukhula kwenhleleleko, ukuthuthuka kwezokuxhumana nokuzalusa-siqu, kanye nokusetshenziswa kwezinguxa ezintwesi ezikwazi ukuhlaziya nokuxilonga izindaba ngaphandle kwesidingo sokungenela komuntu.

Kuphinde kumelele ugudluko lomphakathi, umbusazwe nomnotho kusuka enkathini yezezibhangqiwe yasekupheleni kweminyaka ye-1990 nasekuqaleni kweminyaka yezi-2000 kuya enkathini yoxhumano olufakelelwe oluhlukaniswa ukusebenza-ndawozonke (omni-use) nokufana kokusebenza kwezobuchwepheshe emphakathini wonke (e.g. a metaverse) okuguqula izindlela abantu abangcwetha ngayo futhi bazuze nolwazi lwezwe elibazungezile. Kuphakamisa ukuthi sesidale futhi sisengena kwinGempela lomphakathi elojotshelelwe (augmented social reality) uma liqhathaniswa nokuzwa okungokwemvelo namakhono wezimboni wabantu kukodwa.

Umlando[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umushwana othi iNguquko yeziMboni yesine wangeniswa okokuqala ithimba labosonzululwazi ababethuthukisela uhulumeni waseJakimani iqhingasu lobunyonico obuphezulu. UKlaus Schwab, ongusihlalo wesigungu sesiDlangala sezoMnotho soMhlaba (World Economic Forum (WEF)), wangenisa lomushwana ezihlweleni ezibanzi ngonyaka ka- 2015 kwisibhalwa esashicilelwa uMnyango wezangaphandle. "Ukuhuqaza iNguquko yeziMboni yesine" ("Mastering the Fourth Industrial Revolution") kwakuyisihloko sango-2016 soMhlangano woNyaka wesiDlangala sezoMnotho soMhlaba (World Economic Forum Annual Meeting), e-Davos-Klosters, kwelase-Switzerland.

Mhla zili-10 Kumfumfu 2016, lesiDlangala samemezela ukuvulwa kwesiKhungo seNguquko yeziMboni yesine e-San Francisco. Lokhu kwabuye kwaba isihloko sencwadi kaSchwab yangowezi-2016. U-Schwab uhlanganisa kulenkathi yesine ezobuchwepheshe ezivuba ubuxhakansebenzo (hardware), izinhlelokusebenza (software), nomchazampilo (cyber-physical systems), futhi ugcizelela intuthuko kwezokuxhumana noxhumano. U-Schwab ulindela ukuba lenkathi iphawulwe ezobuchwepheshe ezisafufusa eziqopha umlando emikhakheni efana nezobuthununu, uhlakahlisombulu, ubuchwepheshenci (nanotechnology), ukuCikiza ngomngako (quantum computing), ubuchwepheshempilo (biotechnology), uxhakaxholo lwezinto, uxhakaxholo lwezinto lwezimboni, ukuvumelana okunyombonisiwe, ezobuchwepheshe ezingenantambo zohlobo lwesihlanu (5G), ukushicilela ngemiyinge emithathu (3D printing), nezithuthi zenhleleleko ngokugcwele.

Esiphakamisweni esithi "The Great Reset" se-WEF, iNguquko yeziMboni yesine ifakwe njengobuhlakani beqhingasu esixazululweni sokwakha kabusha umnotho uzolondolozeka ngemuva kobhadane lwe-COVID-19.

INguqulo yeziMboni yokuqala[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

INguqulo yeziMboni yokuqala yaphawulwa ushintsho olusuka ekukhiqizeni ngezandla kuya ezinguxeni ngokusetshenziswa kwamandla womusi namandla wamanzi. Ukugunundwa kwezobuchwepheshe ezintsha kwadla isikhathi eside, ngakho leyo nkathi okubhekiselwa kuyo iphakathi kowe-1760 nowe-1820, kanye nowe-1849 kwelaseYurophu naseMelika. Umthelela nomphumela wayo wabonakala ekukhiqizweni kwendangu, okwaba yikho okwamukela lolo shintsho, kanjalo nezimboni zensimbi, ezolimo, nezokuvukuza nakuba ibe nomthelela wezenhlalo ikakhulu esigabeni esiphakathi.

INguqulo yeziMboni yesibili[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

INguqulo yeziMboni yesibili, eyaziwa nangokuthi INguqulo yezobuchwepheshe, inkathi emaphakathu kowe-1871 nowe-1914 eyaba ngumphumela wokufakwa kukajantshi namaxhoxho wocingo, okwavumela ukudluliswa ngokushesha kwabantu namasu, kanye nokufakwa kwamazuba. Ukufakwa kwamazuba okwandayo kwavumela imikhando ukuba ithuthukise izindlela zokukhiqiza zanamuhla. Lena kwakuyinkathi yokukhula komnotho, ukukhula ekukhiqizeni, okwaba yosisusa sokuqubuka kokusweleka komsebenzi njengoba izisebenzi zasemikhando zazinanwa izinguxa.

INguqulo yeziMboni yesithathu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

INguqulo yeziMboni yesithathu, eyaziwa nangokuthi INguqulo yezezibhangqiwe, yenzeka ekupheleni kwekhulu lama-20, emva kokuphela kwezimpi zomhlaba ezimbili, okwaba womphumela wokuba lusilili kwezezimboni nasekuphuculeni kwezobuchwepheshe uma uqhathaniswa nezinkathi zangaphambili. Ukukhiqizwa kwesicikizi Z1, esasisebenzisa amanani amabhangqa nomhluza ka-Boolean, kwaba isiqalo sokuthuthukiswa kwezezibhangqiwe eziphuculiwe. Intuthuko elandelayo nebalulekile kwezobuchwepheshe bokuxhumana kwaba isiCikizikhulu, nokusetshenziswa kabanzi kwezobuchwepheshe besicikizi nobezokuxhumana emdludlungweni wokuKhiqiza.

INguqulo yesiNe yeziMboni[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngokwengqikithi, iNguqulo yesiNe yeziMboni igabele kwezokuhleleleka nasekunananeni ngemininingo kwezobuchwepheshe nasemidludlungweni yokukhiqiza ehlanganisa nezinhlelo eziphathekayo zoxhakaxholo, uxhakaxholo lwezinto (IoT), noxhakaxholo lezinto lwezimboni,[2] ukuCikiza ngefu,[3][4][5][6] ukuCikiza ngomqondo, nohlakahlisombulu.[6][7]

Izinguxa azisoze zafakelela ubungcweti obunzulu babantu kodwana zigabele ekubeni nobunomfiya ukwedlula abantu ekuqhogoyeni izinsebenzo eziphindaphindayo, futhi inhlanganisela yokufunda kwenguxa namandla wokuCikiza zivumela ukuba izinguxa zigununde imisebenzi eyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu.[8]

INguqulo yesiNe yeziMboni ichasiswa njengenthuthukiso yezobuchwepheshe ezinhlelweni eziphathekayo zoxhakaxholo ezifana noxhumano lomthamo omkhulu; izindlela zokunanana kwezingudla nabantu ezintsha ezifana nezixhakasimo ezithintwayo nezinhlelo zendwalife; nentuthuko ekufufukiseni imiyalezo yemininingo ibheke ezweni eliphathekayo kuhlanganisa nezezithununu nokunyathelisa ngemiyinge emithathu; uxhakaxholo lwezinto (IoT); "Imininingo nkulu" nokucikiza ngefu; izinhlelo ezisekwe kuhlakahlisombulu; nokuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo sezidlakathi esidlwezekayo esingekho emdwayingeni: amazubelanga, amazubomoya, amazubomjilimbo neziphathanzuba zomthanya.

INguqulo yesiNe yeziMboni iqopha isileke senkathi yesicabango.[9]

Imithombo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. Bai, Chunguang; Dallasega, Patrick; Orzes, Guido; Sarkis, Joseph (1 November 2020). "Industry 4.0 technologies assessment: A sustainability perspective" (in en). International Journal of Production Economics 229: 107776. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2020.107776. ISSN 0925-5273. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925527320301559. 
  2. "IIOT AND AUTOMATION".
  3. Hermann, Pentek, Otto, 2016: Design Principles for Industrie 4.0 Scenarios. Retrieved 4 May 2016
  4. Jürgen Jasperneite:Was hinter Begriffen wie Industrie 4.0 steckt Archived 1 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine. in Computer & Automation, 19 December 2012 accessed on 23 December 2012
  5. Kagermann, H., W. Wahlster and J. Helbig, eds., 2013: Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative Industrie 4.0: Final report of the Industrie 4.0 Working Group
  6. 6.0 6.1 Heiner Lasi, Hans-Georg Kemper, Peter Fettke, Thomas Feld, Michael Hoffmann: Industry 4.0. In: Business & Information Systems Engineering 4 (6), pp. 239–242
  7. Gazzaneo, Lucia; Padovano, Antonio; Umbrello, Steven (1 January 2020). "Designing Smart Operator 4.0 for Human Values: A Value Sensitive Design Approach" (in en). Procedia Manufacturing. International Conference on Industry 4.0 and Smart Manufacturing (ISM 2019) 42: 219–226. doi:10.1016/j.promfg.2020.02.073. ISSN 2351-9789. 
  8. Pedota, Mattia; Piscitello, Lucia (3 November 2021). "A new perspective on technology‐driven creativity enhancement in the Fourth Industrial Revolution". Creativity and Innovation Management 31 (1): 109–122. doi:10.1111/caim.12468. ISSN 0963-1690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/caim.12468. 
  9. Recke, Martin (June 2019). "Why imagination and creativity are primary value creators". SinnerSchrader Aktiengesellschaft.