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Umdwebo okhombisa ukwanda komkhathilibe okuyisizinda sesikhathi uqobo lwaso esihlala kusona

iSayensi uhlelo nendlela yokuluphenya nokuzama ukuluthola lonke ulwazi olungaba khona emhlabeni nasemkhathilibeni wonke. Kwisayensi kukhona izindlela zokuhlela izincazelo ezivivinyayo nokubikezela ngomkhathi. [1] [2] Kubalulekile kakhulu kusayensi ukuba imiphumela yezivivinyo nocwaningo kube eqinisekiswe ososayensi abaningi ukuze amaqiniso ayo angaphuma odwa kuvezwa amaphutha. Kwencikene kakhulu nokusizana kuhlanganwe.

Izimpande zokuqala zesayensi ziseGibhithe lasendulo naseMesopotamiya kusukela cishe ngowezi-3500 kuya ku-3000 BCE.[3] [4] Amagalelo abo kwezomchazazibalo, ezoMchazamkhathi, kanye nezokwelapha angena futhi abumba iFilosofi yemvelo yamaGreki yenkathi yakudala, okuyilapho kwenziwa khona imizamo emisiwe yokuqhamuka nezincazelo ezisekelwe emsukeni ongokwemvelo wezinto ezenzeka endaweni ebonwa ngamehlo. Ngemuva kokuwa koMbuso oseNtshonalanga WaseRoma, ulwazi lwemiqondo yamaGrikhi ngomhlaba lwehla eNtshonalanga Yurophu phakathi neminyaka engamakhulu amane yokuqala (eyama-400 kuya kwe-1000 CE) weNkathi Ephakathi [5] kepha lwalondolozwa emazweni obuSulumane ngesikhathi se- nkathi yokuChuma kobuSulumane. [6] Ukubuyiselwa nokuhlanganiswa kwemisebenzi yamaGrikhi nemibuzo yamaSulumane eNtshonalanga Yurophu kusuka ngekhulu le-10 kuye le-13 kwavuselela "iFilosofi yemvelo", [7] kamuva eyaguqulwa yinguquko yeSayensi eyaqala ngekhulu le-16 [8] njengoba amasu amasha kanye nokusanda-kufunyanwa kwayishiya imiqondo namasiko wamaGrikhi kwangaphambili. [9] [10] [11] [12] Indlela-su engokwesayensi ngokushesha yadlala indima enkulu ekwakhiweni kolwazi futhi kuze kwaba ngekhulu lam-19 lapho izici eziningi zezikhungo nokucwephesha zesayensi ezaqala ukwakheka; [13] [14] [15] kanye nokushintshwa "kwefilosofi yemvelo" kube isayensi yemvelo. [16]

Isayensi yanamuhla ngokuvamile ihlukaniswe yaba amagatsha amathathu amakhulu aqukethe isayensi yemvelo (isib, uMchazampilo, ikhemistri, kanye namafiziki), efunda imvelo ngomqondo ebanzi; isayensi yezenhlalo (isib, ezomnotho, ezengqondo, kanye nezenhlalo), ezifunda abantu ngabanye nemiphakathi; kanye nesayensi ehlelekile (isib. umhluzaqondo, umchazazibalo, kanye nesayensi yesiCikizi semibhalo), ephathelene nezimpawu ezilawulwa yimithetho. Kodwa kukhona ukungaboni ngaso linye, [17] [18] ekutheni isayensi ehlelekile empeleni yakha isayensi njengoba ingasekelwe ebufakazini obungcwetile. [19] Imikhakha esebenzisa ulwazi olukhona lwesayensi ngezinjongo ezisebenzayo, enjengobunjiniyela ezokwelapha, zichazwa njengesayensi esetshenzisiwe. [20] [21] [22] [23]

Ulwazi olusha lwesayensi luthuthukiswa ucwaningo lososayensi abagqugquzelwa ilukuluku ngokuphathelene nomhlaba kanye nayisifiso sokuxazulula izinkinga. Ucwaningo lwesayensi lwanamuhla lwenziwa ngokubambisana okukhulu futhi luvame ukuqhutshwa amathimba akwezemfundo, izikhungo zokucwaninga, izikhungo zikahulumeni nezinkampani. Umthelela osebenzayo ocwaningweni lwesayensi uholele ekuqubukeni kwezinqubomgomo zesayensi ezifuna ukuthonya ibhizinisi lesayensi ngokubeka phambili ukuthuthukiswa kwe imikhiqizo yezentengiso, izikhali, ukunakekela impilo, futhiukuvikelwa kwemvelo.

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. Wilson, E.O. Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge.
  2. "... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. It was a discovery that nature generally acts regularly enough to be described by laws and even by mathematics; and required invention to devise the techniques, abstractions, apparatus, and organization for exhibiting the regularities and securing their law-like descriptions."— p.vii Heilbron, J.L. (editor-in-chief). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science.
  3. "The historian ... requires a very broad definition of "science" – one that ... will help us to understand the modern scientific enterprise. We need to be broad and inclusive, rather than narrow and exclusive ... and we should expect that the farther back we go [in time] the broader we will need to be."  p.3—Lindberg, David C. (2007). "Science before the Greeks". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–27. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  4. Grant, Edward (2007). "Ancient Egypt to Plato". A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century (First ed.). New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN 978-052-1-68957-1.
  5. Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The revival of learning in the West". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 193–224. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  6. Lindberg, David C. (2007). "Islamic science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (Second ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 163–92. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  7. Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The recovery and assimilation of Greek and Islamic science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (2nd ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 225–53. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  8. Principe, Lawrence M. (2011). "Introduction". Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction (First ed.). New York, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-199-56741-6.
  9. Lindberg, David C. (1990). "Conceptions of the Scientific Revolution from Baker to Butterfield: A preliminary sketch". Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution (First ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–26. ISBN 978-0-521-34262-9.
  10. Lindberg, David C. (2007). "The legacy of ancient and medieval science". The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context (2nd ed.). Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. pp. 357–368. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7.
  11. Del Soldato, Eva. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2016 ed.). Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University.
  12. Grant, Edward (2007). "Transformation of medieval natural philosophy from the early period modern period to the end of the nineteenth century". A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century (First ed.). New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 274–322. ISBN 978-052-1-68957-1.
  13. From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences: Writing the History of Nineteenth-Century Science. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-08928-7.
  14. The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834.
  15. Lightman, Bernard. "13. Science and the Public". Wrestling with Nature : From Omens to Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226317830.
  16. Harrison, Peter. The Territories of Science and Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN 9780226184517.
  17. Bishop, Alan (1991). "Environmental activities and mathematical culture". Mathematical Enculturation: A Cultural Perspective on Mathematics Education. Norwell, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 20–59. ISBN 978-0-792-31270-3.
  18. Bunge, Mario. "The Scientific Approach". Philosophy of Science: Volume 1, From Problem to Theory. New York, New York: Routledge. pp. 3–50. ISBN 978-0-765-80413-6.
  19. Fetzer, James H. (2013). "Computer reliability and public policy: Limits of knowledge of computer-based systems". Computers and Cognition: Why Minds are not Machines. Newcastle, United Kingdom: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 271–308. ISBN 978-1-443-81946-6.
  20. Fischer, M.R. (2014). Thinking and acting scientifically: Indispensable basis of medical education. pp. Doc24. 
  21. Abraham, Reem Rachel (2004). Clinically oriented physiology teaching: strategy for developing critical-thinking skills in undergraduate medical students. pp. 102–04. 
  22. Sinclair, Marius. On the Differences between the Engineering and Scientific Methods. 
  23. "Engineering Technology :: Engineering Technology :: Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, IUPUI". Missing or empty |url= (help)

Izixhumanisi ezingaphandle[hlela | Hlela umthombo]