Jump to content

Umchazatho

Mayelana Wikipedia

umChazatho iyisifundo senzululwazi yezakhi kanye nokucondoza koTho. Iyisayensi yemvelo ecwaninga izinhlwa ezakha uTho kuze kuyofika kwimxube eyakhiwa amachwe, imizwayi neziHonyo: Ukwakheka kwazo, uhlaka lwazo, izakhi zazo, ukucondoza kwazo kanye noshintsho ezidlula kulo ngesikhathi zilumbana nezinye iziqa.

Ngokwesilinganiso sesihloko sawo, umChazatho ungena endaweni emaphakathi komChazandalo no nomChazampilo. Ngesinye isikhathi ubizwa ngokuthi yisayensi emaphakathi ngoba inikeza isiseko sokuqonda yomibili imikhakha yenzululwazi Eyisisekelo nenzululwazi eSetshenziswayo ezingeni eliyisisekelo. Ngokwesibonelo, umChazatho uchaza izici zokukhula kwesitshalo (botany), ukubumbeka kwamatshe angenalutho (umChazazwe), ukuthi isiNtshongo (ozone) somoyambulunga sakhiwe kanjani nokuthi izinto ezingcolisa imvelo zonakaliswa kanjani uxhaxhamvelo (ecology), izakhi zenhlabathi enyangeni (cosmoikhemistri), ukuthi imithi yokwelapha isebenza kanjani (umchazamakhambi pharmacology), nokuthi ungabuqoqa kanjani ubufakazi bolibofuzo endaweni yobugebengu (Forensic).

uMsuka[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umsuka wegama lesizulu elithi "umchazatho" uvela encazelweni yalomkhakha wenzululwazi, ukufindwa kokucondoza kotho, okusho ukuthi kufundwa ngotho, kwenziwa imizamo yokuchaza uTho nezakhi zalo nokucondoza kwalo.

Izimiso zanamuhla[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ingqalaba yesikhungo se-Biochemistry, eNyuvesi yase-Cologne eJalimani

Unongo olukhona manje lezinhlaka zechwe lulandela unongo lobunguxa bomngako.[1] Umchazatho ongokwesiko uqala ngesifundo sezinhlayiyamana eziyisiseko, amachwe, imizwayi,[2] iziqa, izinkimbi, imincwebe kanye nezinye izinhlanganisela zotho. UTho lungacwaningwa esimweni esinqumile, esiluketshezi, nesiluhowo, ngokuqhingwa noma ngokuhlanganyelwa. Ukwenanana, ukusabela nokuguquka okucwaningwa kumchazatho kuvame ukuba umphumela wokwenanana kwamachwe, okuholela ekuhlelekeni kabusha kwezibhonqi zevanga okuyizona ezibhonqa amachwe ndawonye. Ukucondoza okunjalo kuvame ukufundwa engqalabeni yomchazatho.

Ingqalaba yomchazatho ivame ukusebenzisa amagabha wengqalaba akhethekile. Kodwana, amagabha wengqalaba awayona ingqikithi yomchazatho, futhi miningi imigcanso yomchazatho eyenziwa ngaphandle kwawo.

Izibhunyela zeziqa ezisemagabheni, zihlanganisa izimunyu nezintuhla ezikhanyiswe ngemilobolobo

Ukusabela kwevanga kuwukuguquka kwezinye iziqa zibe ezinye ezihlukile.[3]

uTho[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngokomchazatho, uTho luchasiswa njenganoma yini enesisindo esiphumule nommumatho (edla indawo) futhi eyakhiwa izinhlayiyana. Izinhlayiyana ezakha uTho nazo zinesisindo esiphumule, – akuzona zonke izinhlayiyana ezinesisindo esiphumule, njengamabane. UTho lungaba yisiqa esicwebileyo noma iziqa ezixubene.[4]

iChwe[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

isifaniso sechwe ngokonongo lukaRutherford

IChwe liwumuvo oyisiseko womchazatho. Luqukethe umnyondo olugqinsi obizwa inuzi lechwe elizungezwe umkhathi onefu lenzuba. INuzi lakhiwa izinelesi ezinomlelesa ovumayo nezintunge ezingenawo umlelesa (kokubili kubizwa izintungesi), kuyilapho ifu lenzuba lona ligcwele izinzuba ezinomlelesa ophikayo.

iNhlwa[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Umumo ovamile wecansi lezinhlwa zevanga. Imibala omelela izigceme ezihlukile zezinhlwa.

Inhlwa yevanga yisiqa esicwebileyo esakhiwa uhlobo olulodwa lechwe, olwaziwa ngenani lalo lezinelesi enuzini lechwe, elaziwa ngokuthi inani lobuchwe nelimelelwa uphawu Z. Inani lesisindo liyisamba senani lezinelesi nezintunge enuzini. Nakuba wonke amanuzi wamachwe wonke wenhlwa eyodwa anenani lobuchwe elifanayo, kungenzeka angabi nenani lesisindo elifanayo; amachwe wenhlwa anenani lesisindo elihlukile aziwa ngokuthi amaChembe.

Imithombo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. "chemical bonding". Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/684121/chemical-bonding/43383/The-quantum-mechanical-model. Retrieved 1 November 2012. 
  2. Matter: Atoms from Democritus to Dalton Archived 28 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine. by Anthony Carpi, Ph.D.
  3. IUPAC Gold Book Definition Archived 4 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. Armstrong, James (2012). General, Organic, and Biochemistry: An Applied Approach. Brooks/Cole. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-534-49349-3.