IBhayibheli lesiHeberu

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IBhayibheli isiHebheru noma Tanakh [lower-alpha 1] ( /t ɑː n ɑː x / ; [1] Hebrew :  pronounced [taˈnaχ] noma [təˈnax] ), iqoqo lezincwadi zemibhalo yesiHeberu, okubandakanya neTorah.Le mibhalo icishe ibe ngesiHeberu seBhayibheli kuphela, inezindima ezimbalwa ngesi-Aramu seBhayibheli (ezincwadini zikaDaniel no- Ezra, ivesi uJeremiya 10:11,namagama athile). Hebrew_Bible_Wordle_-_פוסטר_התפלגות_המלים_בתנ"ך


Ifomu lombhalo ukuthi unegunya ngoba yorabi UbuJuda njengoba laziwa wamaMasorete Umbhalo (MT) futhi siqukethe izincwadi 24, futhi kuhlelwa yabala usebenzisa perek futhi pasuk ( Izahluko kanye namavesi zeBhayibheli ).Okuqukethwe yiBhayibheli lesiHeberu kuyefana ne- Protestant Christian Old Testament, lapho okubhaliwe kuhlukaniswe kwaba yizincwadi ezingama-39 futhi kwahlelwa ngendlela ehlukile.AmaBhayibheli amaKhatholika, amaBhayibheli ase-Eastern / Greek Orthodox namaBhayibheli ase- Ethiopia aqukethe izinto ezengeziwe, ezithathwe kwi- Septuagint (imibhalo ehunyushelwe ku- Koine Greek ) neminye imithombo.

Ngaphezu kombhalo weMasoretic, izazi zanamuhla ezifuna ukuqonda umlando weBhayibheli lesiHeberu zisebenzisa imithombo ehlukahlukene.Lokhu kufaka phakathi i-Septuagint, inguqulo yesiSyriac ethi Peshitta, iPentateuch yaseSamariya, iqoqo lemiQulu yoLwandle Olufile nezingcaphuno ezivela emibhalweni yesandla yorabi.Le mithombo ingaba mdala kunoMbhalo weMasorete kwezinye izimo futhi ivame ukwehluka kuyo.Lokhu kwehluka kuye kwaveza umbono wokuthi kukhona omunye umbhalo, i- Urtext ye-Hebrew Bible, owake waba khona futhi ungumthombo wezinguqulo ezikhona namuhla. [2]Kodwa-ke, i-Urtext enjalo ayikaze itholakale, futhi yiziphi kulezi nguqulo ezintathu ezaziwa kakhulu (i-Septuagint, i-Masoretic Text, i-Samaritan Pentateuch) esiseduzane ne-Urtext okuxoxiswana ngayo.

Igama "Tanakh"[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

ITanakh yisifushaniso, esenziwe ngohlamvu lokuqala lwesiHeberu lwezigaba ezintathu zendabuko zeMasoretic Text : Torah (ngokwezwi nezwi 'Umyalelo' noma 'Umthetho'), Nevi'im (Prophets), neKetuvim (Writings) - lapho TaNaKh.

Ukuhlukaniswa okuyizingxenye ezintathu okuvezwe kusichasiso esithi Tanakh kufakazelwa kahle ezincwadini zorabi .Ngaleso sikhathi, noma kunjalo, iTanakh ayizange isetshenziswe.Esikhundleni salokho, isihloko esifanele bekuyiMikra (noma iMiqra, מקרא, okusho ukufunda noma lokho okufundwayo ) ngoba imibhalo yeBhayibheli yayifundwa obala. Isiqubulo esithi 'Tanakh' siqoshwa okokuqala enkathini ephakathi. [3] UMikra uyaqhubeka nokusetshenziswa ngesiHeberu kuze kube namuhla, eceleni kweTanakh, ukubhekisa kwimibhalo yesiHeberu.NgesiHeberu sakamuva esikhulunywayo, ziyashintshana. [4]

Ukuthuthukiswa nokuhlanganiswa kwamakhodi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ubudlelwano obuphakathi kwemibhalo yesandla yasendulo ephawulekayo yeTestamente Elidala (eminye ikhonjwe yisiglum sabo). Mt ukuba umbhalo wamaMasorete.Umbhalo ophansi kakhulu "(elahlekile)" kungaba yi- Urtext .

Akukho ukuvumelana kwezazi maqondana nokuthi kwamiswa nini uhlu lwezincwadi zeBhayibheli zesiHeberu: ezinye izazi ziphikisa ngokuthi kwalungiswa ubukhosi bakwaHasmonean,kuyilapho abanye bethi kwakungalungiswa kuze kube sekhulwini lesibili leminyaka CE noma ngisho nakamuva. [5]

Ngokwe- Legends of the Jews kaLouis Ginzberg, incwadi engamashumi amabili nane yezincwadi zeBhayibheli yesiHeberu yamiswa ngu- Ezra nababhali ngesikhathi seThempeli Lesibili.[6]

Ngokwe- Talmud, okuningi kweTanakh kwahlanganiswa amadoda e- Great Assembly ( Anshei K'nesset HaGedolah ), umsebenzi owaphothulwa ngo-450 BCE, futhi iye yahlala ingashintshi kusukela lapho. [7]

Le canon enezincwadi ezingama-24 ishiwo kuMidrash Koheleth 12:12: Noma ngubani oletha ndawonye endlini yakhe izincwadi ezingaphezu kwamashumi amabili nane uletha ukudideka . [8]

Inani lamagama ahlukene asetshenzisiwe[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Inani lamagama ahlukile eBhayibhelini lesiHeberu lingu-8,679, okuyi-1 480 kuwo angama- hapax legomena, : 112 amagama noma izinkulumo ezenzeka kanye kuphela.Inani lezimpande ezihlukile zamaSemite, lapho iningi lala magama aseBhayibhelini asekelwe khona, cishe linga-2000. [9] : 112 

Izincwadi zeTanakh[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

ITanakh iqukethe izincwadi ezingamashumi amabili nane, kubalwa njengencwadi eyodwa u-1 Samuweli no-2 Samuweli, 1 Amakhosi no-2 AmaKhosi, 1 IziKronike no-2 IziKronike, no- Ezra – Nehemiya.I abaProfethi Nambili Minor תרי עשר ) nazo zibalwa njengencwadi eyodwa.NgesiHeberu, izincwadi zivame ukubhekiswa ngamagama (amagama) abo avelele.

Torah[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

ITorah (תּוֹרָה, ngokwezwi nezwi "ukufundisa" ), eyaziwa nangokuthi iPentateuch, noma "Izincwadi Ezinhlanu ZikaMose".Ezinguqulweni ezinyathelisiwe (kunokuba imiqulu) Torah ngokuvamile abizwa ngokuthi "Chamisha Chumshei Torah" חמישה חומשי תורה "Izingxenye ezinhlanu ezinhlanu zeTorah" ) nangokungakahleleki i- "Chumash" .

  • IBərē'šīṯ (בְּרֵאשִׁית, ngokwezwi nezwi "Ekuqaleni" ) - uGenesise
  • Šəmōṯ (שְׁמֹות, ngokwezwi nezwi "Amagama [ka]" - Eksodusi
  • UVayyīqrā ' (וַיִּקְרָא, ngokwezwi nezwi "Futhi wabiza" ) - uLevitikusi
  • IBəmīḏbar (בְּמִדְבַּר, ngokwezwi nezwi "Ehlane [lase]" ) - Izinombolo
  • Dəvārīm (דְּבָרִים, ngokwezwi nezwi "Izinto" noma "Amagama" ) - uDuteronomi

I-Nevi'im[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Nevi'im נְבִיאִים Nəḇī'īm , "Prophets" ) isigaba sesibili esikhulu seTanakh, phakathi kweTorah neKetuvim.Lesi sigaba sifaka izincwadi ezihlanganisa isikhathi esivela ekungeneni kwama-Israyeli angene eZweni lakwa-Israyeli kuze kube sekudingisweni kwaseBabiloni kwaJuda ( "isikhathi sokuprofetha" ).Ukusatshalaliswa kwabo akulandeli ngokulandelana kwezikhathi, kodwa kuyenzeka.

I abaProfethi Owabe נביאים ראשונים Nevi'im Rishonim )

  • Yəhōšua ' (יְהוֹשֻעַ) - UJoshua
  • Šōfṭīm (שֹׁפְטִים) - AbaHluleli
  • Šəmū'ēl (שְׁמוּאֵל) - USamuel
  • Məlāḵīm (מְלָכִים) - Amakhosi

I -Latter nabaProfethi נביאים אחרונים Nevi'im Aharonim )

  • Yəša'yāhū (יְשַׁעְיָהוּ) - Isaya
  • Yīrməyāhū (יִרְמְיָהוּ) - uJeremiya
  • Yəḥezqē'l (יְחֶזְקֵאל) - uHezekeli

I abaProfethi Nambili Minor תרי עשר , Trei Asar, "The Twelve" ), ezibhekwa njengencwadi eyodwa

  • IHōšēa ' (הוֹשֵׁעַ) - UHoseya
  • UYō'ēl (יוֹאֵל) - uJoel
  • 'Āmōs (עָמוֹס) - U-Amose
  • 'Ōḇaḏyā (עֹבַדְיָה) - U- Obadiya
  • Yona (יוֹנָה) - Jona
  • Mīḵā (מִיכָה) - UMikha
  • INaḥūm (נַחוּם) - uNahume
  • Ḥăḇaqqūq (חֲבַקּוּק) - uHabakuki
  • Ṣəfanyā (צְפַנְיָה) - UZefaniya
  • I-gaggay (חַגַּי) - uHagayi
  • UZəḵaryā (זְכַרְיָה) - UZakariya
  • Mal'āḵī (מַלְאָכִי) - uMalaki

I-Ketuvim[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Kəṯūḇīm כְּתוּבִים , "Imibhalo" ) iqukethe izincwadi eziyishumi nanye.

Izincwadi zezinkondlo[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Emibhalweni yesandla yamaMasorete (nakwezinye izinhlelo eziphrintiwe), amaHubo, iZaga kanye noJobe ethulwa ngendlela ekhethekile enamakholomu amabili egcizelela iziqu ezifanayo ezikumavesi, okuwumsebenzi wezinkondlo zawo.Ngokubambisana, lezi zincwadi ezintathu zaziwa njengeSifrei Emet (isifinyezo seziqu ngesiHeberu, איוב, משלי, תהלים kuveza i- Emet אמ"ת, nayo eyiHeberu elisho " iqiniso ").

Lezi zincwadi ezintathu nazo kuphela eTanakh ezinesistimu ekhethekile yamanothi e-cantillation aklanyelwe ukugcizelela iziqu ezifanayo ngaphakathi kwamavesi.Kodwa-ke, ukuqala nokuphela kwencwadi kaJobe kusezinhlelweni ezijwayelekile zeprozi.

Imiqulu emihlanu[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Izincwadi ezinhlanu ezimfishane kakhulu zeNgoma Yezingoma, iNcwadi kaRuth, iNcwadi yesiLilo, uMshumayeli, neNcwadi ka-Esteri zaziwa ngokuhlanganyela njenge- Ḥamesh Megillot (iMegillot emihlanu).Lezi yizincwadi zakamuva eziqoqwe futhi zaqokwa "njengegunya" ohlwini lwezincwadi lwamaJuda, ngezingxenye zakamuva ezinezinsuku ezisukela ekhulwini lesi-2 BCE.Le miqulu ngokwesiko ifundwa phakathi nonyaka emiphakathini eminingi yamaJuda.

Lezi zincwadi zifundwa ngokuzwakalayo esinagogeni ngezikhathi ezithile, umcimbi obhalwe ngezansi kumabakaki.

  • Šīr hašŠīrīm (שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים) - Ingoma Yezingoma, eyaziwa nangokuthi IsiHlabelelo seziHlabelelo ( ngePhasika )
  • I-Rūṯ (רוּת) - Incwadi kaRuth ( kuShavuot )
  • 'Ēḵā (אֵיכָה) - Incwadi Yezililo (kuTisha B'Av [10] )
  • Qōheleṯ (קֹהֶלֶת) - UmShumayeli (ku- Sukkot )
  • 'Estēr (אֶסְתֵר) - Incwadi ka-Esteri (nge- Purim )

Ezinye izincwadi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ngaphandle kwezincwadi ezintathu zezinkondlo kanye nemiqulu emihlanu, izincwadi ezisele eKetuvim nguDaniel, uEzra – uNehemiya noKronike.Yize kungekho ukuqoqwa okusemthethweni kwalezi zincwadi ngokwesiko lamaJuda, nokho babelana ngezici eziningi ezihlukanisayo.

  • Ukulandisa kwabo konke kuchaza ngokusobala izehlakalo ezedlule (okusho ukuthunjwa kwaseBabiloni kanye nokubuyiselwa kweSiyoni okwalandela).
  • Isiko leTalmud linikeza ukuthi bonke babhalwa kamuva.
  • Ababili babo (uDaniel no-Ezra) ukuphela kwezincwadi ngesiTanakh ezinezingxenye ezibalulekile ngesi-Aramu .

Ukuhleleka kwencwadi[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Isiko lamaJuda alizange liqede ukuhleleka kwezincwadi eKetuvim. ITalmud yaseBabiloni ( iBava Batra 14b - 15a) inika ukuhleleka kwayo njengoRuth, amaHubo, uJobe, iZaga, uMshumayeli, isiHlabelelo seziHlabelelo, isiLilo, uDaniel, umqulu ka-Esteri, u-Ezra, iziKronike.

Kuma- codex aseMasorete aseTiberiya, kufaka phakathi i- Aleppo Codex neLeningrad Codex, futhi kaningi emibhalweni yesandla yakudala yaseSpain, ukuhleleka kwayo iziKronike, amaHubo, uJobe, iZaga, uRuthe, isiHlabelelo seziHlabelelo, umShumayeli, isiLilo, u-Esteri, uDaniel no-Ezra.

Nach[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

I-Nach, nayo i-anglicized , ibhekisa ezingxenyeni zeTanakh zeNevi'im neKetuvim.UNach uvame ukubizwa ngokuthi yisihloko sakhe, esihlukile kwiTorah.

Kuyisifundo esikhulu kwikharikhulamu yezikole eziphakeme zama-Orthodox zamantombazane nasemaseminari abazofunda kuwo kamuva, futhi imvamisa ifundiswa ngothisha abehlukile kunalabo abafundisa uChumash.Ikharikhulamu yezikole zamabanga aphakeme zabafana ifaka kuphela izingxenye ezithile zeNach, njengencwadi kaJoshua, incwadi yabaHluleli, [11] kanye ne-Five Megillot. [12]

Izincazelo zamaJuda[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

Ukuphawula okuyinhloko okusetshenziselwe iChumash ukuphawula kukaRashi.Ukuphawula kukaRashi kanye nokuphawula kweMetzudot yizincazelo ezinkulu zeNach.

Izinkomba[hlela | Hlela umthombo]

  1. "Tanach". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. Isaac Leo Seeligmann, Robert Hanhart, Hermann Spieckermann: The Septuagint Version of Isaiah and Cognate Studies, Tübingen 2004, pp. 33–34.
  3. It appears in the masorah magna of the Biblical text, and in the responsa of the Rashba (5:119); see Research Query: Tanakh/תנ״ך
  4. Biblical Studies Mikra: Text, Translation, Reading, and Interpretation. Norton Irish Theological Quarterly. 2007; 72: 305–306
  5. McDonald & Sanders, The Canon Debate, 2002, p. 5, cited are Neusner's Judaism and Christianity in the Age of Constantine, pp. 128–145, and Midrash in Context: Exegesis in Formative Judaism, pp. 1–22.
  6. Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol. IV : Chapter XI Ezra (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
  7. (Bava Batra 14b–15a, Rashi to Megillah 3a, 14a)
  8. Midrash Qoheleth 12:12
  9. Empty citation (help)
  10. Also called Kinnot in Hebrew.
  11. covered in or before 8th grade (so it's a review)
  12. Esther, Rus, Shir HaShirim, Eicha and KoHeles: these are read aloud in synagogue, each at a particular point in the yearly Holiday cycle.