Inhlwa yevanga

Mayelana Wikipedia

INhlwa zevanga iwuhlobo lwechwe elinesibalo esithile seziNelesi endenini yalo, ihlanganisa nesiqa esicwebile esiqukethe lolohlobo kuphela. Ngokungafani nemiXube yevanga, izinhlwa zevanga azinakuwohlozeka zibe iziqa ezilula ngenxa yokulumbana kovanga. Inani lezinelesi endenini yisona sakhi esichasisa inhlwa, futhi kubhekiselwa kulo ngokuthi inani lobuchwe - wonke amachwe enani lobuchwe elifanayo angamachwe enhlwa efanayo. Cishe lonke uTho lobunkindisi kumkhathilibe lwakhiwa izinhlwa zevanga. Lapho izinhlwa ezingafani zibhekana nokulumbana kwevanga, amachwe ahleleka kabusha abe imixube emisha ebanjwe ndawonye izibhonqi zevanga. Zimbalwa izinhlwa ezitholakala zingaxubene nezinye zicwebe njengezimbiwa zemvelo, iCwebe neMbedu. Zonke ezinye izinhlwa zitholakala kuNomkhubulwane ziyimixube noma izimvange. uMoya ngokuyinhloko uyinhlanganisela yezinhlwa iNihwe, isOhwe nesAlahwe, nakuba uqukethe imixube ehlanganisa umcalahle ontuhlambili namanzi.

Periodic_table_(polyatomic) Umlando wokuvubukulwa nokusetshenziswa kwezinhlwa waqala emiphakathini yakudala yabantu eyaqala ngokuvubukula izimbiwa ezifana noMcalahle, isiBabuli, usoKlele nemBedu (nakuba isicabango senhlwa sasingakaqondwa). Imizamo yokujinja izinhlwa ezifana nalezi yaphumela esicabangweni sezinhlwa zakudala, ubuthakathi, kanye neminye imibono efanayo ekhona emlandweni. Imvama yokuqondwa kwanamuhla kwezinhlwa yathuthuka kusuka emsebenzini kaDimitri Mendele, umthaki waseRashiya owashicilela icansi lezinhlwa lokuqala elaziwayo ngonyaka we-1869. Leli cansi lihlela izinhlwa ngokukhuphuka kwenani lobuchwe kube izinhlu ("periods") lapho imiqobe ("groups") ecobelelana khona ("periodic") ngezakhi zokubumbeka nezakhi zevanga. Icansi lezinhlwa lifingqa izakhi ezihlukene zezinhlwa, okuvumela abathaki batomule ukuhlobana phakathi kwazo futhi babikezele ngemixube emisha engase yenzeke.

Icansi elilandelayo liveza izinhlwa ezaziwayo eziyi-118.

Inhlwa ngesiNgisi (IUPAC) Uphawu Inombolo yobuchwe Isisindo sobuchwe
[u]
isiLuthi
[kg/m³] (20 °C)
Melting point
(°C)
Boiling point (°C) uNyaka
wokuvubululwa
umVubululi
IsaCagu actinium Ac 89 227,03 10070 1047 3197 1899 Debierne
IsaLumbe aluminium Al 13 26,98 2700 660,5 2467 1825 Ørsted
IsaMoshi americium Am 95 243,06 13670 994 2607 1944 Seaborg
IsiBidani antimony Sb 51 121,75 6690 630,7 1750 zamani (?)
IsalaHwe argon Ar 18 39,94 1,66 -189,4 −189,4 -185,9 −185,9 1894 Ramsay,
Strutt
IsaSumu arsenic As 33 74,92 5720 613 2) 613 2) 11. Jhd. Albertus Magnus
IsaTsha astatine At 85 209,99
302 337 1940 Segrè
umBhanya barium Ba 56 137,33 3650 725 1640 1808 Davy
ImBeke berkelium Bk 97 247,07 13250 986
1949 Seaborg
IBehlezani beryllium Be 4 9,01 1850 1278 2970 1797 Vauquelin
IBima bismuth Bi 83 208,98 9800 271,4 1560 1540 Agricola
UmThofu lead Pb 82 207,2 11340 327,5 1740 zamani (?)
IBhohombi bohrium Bh 107 262,12


1976 Oganessian
umBohlwa boron B 5 10,81 2460 2300 2550 1808 Davy,
Gay-Lussac
umBhulufu bromine Br 35 79,90 3140 -007,3−7,3 58,8 1826 Balard
umKhathofi cadmium Cd 48 112,41 8640 321 765 1817 Stromeyer und
Hermann
umCanga cesium Cs 55 132,91 1900 28,4 690 1860 Kirchhoff,
Bunsen
umCaphana calcium Ca 20 40,078 1540 839 1487 1808 Davy
umNgcalife californium Cf 98 251,08 15100 900
1950 Seaborg
iShambe cerium Ce 58 140,11 6770 798 3257 1803 von Hisinger, Berzelius
iChwenzi chlorine Cl 17 35,45 2,95 -101−101 -034,6 −34,6 1774 Scheele
uChiyangqwala chromium Cr 24 52,00 7140 1857 2482 1797 Vauquelin
umConjambi cobalt Co 27 58,933 8890 1495 2870 1735 Brandt
iChumumbi curium Cm 96 247,07 13510 1340 3110 1944 Seaborg
iDamasimbi darmstadtium Ds 110 269


1994 GSI
umDubumbi dubnium Db 105 262,11


1967/70 Ghiorso
umDanyathofi dysprosium Dy 66 162,5 8560 1409 2335 1886 Lecoq de Boisbaudran
IsEntshenye einsteinium Es 99 252,08
860
1952 Seaborg
Insimbi iron Fe 26 55,85 7870 1535 2750 zamani (?)
iNdwembi erbium Er 68 167,26 9050 1522 2510 1842 Mosander
umNulundu europium Eu 63 151,96 5250 822 1597 1901 Demarçay
umFeme fermium Fm 100 257,10


1952 Seaborg
uFusihwe flourine F 9 19,00 1,58 -219,6−219,6 -188,1 −188,1 1886 Moissan
IShabalalambi francium Fr 87 223,02
27 677 1939 Perey
umGedembulu gabolinium Gd 64 157,25 7890 1311 3233 1880 de Marignac
umGambana gallium Ga 31 69,72 5910 29,8 2403 1875 Lecoq de Boisbaudran
umGwangaza germanium Ge 32 72,61 5320 937,4 2830 1886 Winkler
iMbedu gold Au 79 196,97 19320 1064,4 2940 zamani (?)
umHlafantunge Hafnium Hf 72 178,49 13310 2150 5400 1923 Coster,
de Hevesy
umHasambi Hassium 108 265,00


1984 GSI
iHwelanga Helium He 2 4,00 0,170 -272,2−272,2 -268,9 −268,9 1895 Ramsay,
Crookes
umHomambi holmium Ho 67 164,93 8780 1470 2720 1878 Soret
iHwanzi hydrogen H 1 1,01 0,084 -259,1 −259,1 -252,9 −252,9 1766 Cavendish
iNzulumbi indium In 49 114,82 7310 156,2 2080 1863 Reich,
Richter
iNkwithi iodine I 53 126,90 4940 113,5 184,4 1811 Courtois
Imbidi iridium Ir 77 192,22 22560 2410 4130 1803 Tennant
umKhosha potassium K 19 39,098 860 63,7 774 1807 Davy
umCalahle carbon C 6 12,011 3510 3550 4827 zamani (?)
umKhalawe krypton Kr 36 83,80 3,48 -156,6−156,6 -152,3−152,3 1898 Ramsay,
Travers
usoKlele copper Cu 29 63,55 8920 1083,5 2595 zamani (?)
iLalamthumbi Lanthanum La 57 138,90 6160 920 3454 1839 Mosander
umLangalambi lawrencium Lr 103 260,10
1627
1961 Ghiorso
umThanya Lithium Li 3 6,94 530 180,5 1317 1817 Arfwedson
umLuthambi Lutetium Lu 71 175,00 9840 1656 3315 1907 von Welsbach,
Urbain
umGethe Magnesium Mg 12 24,30 1740 648,8 1107 1828 Bussy
uManyazini Manganese Mn 25 54,90 7440 1244 2097 1774 Gahn
uMtshambi meitnerium Mt 109 266


1982 GSI
uMendele Mendelevium Md 101 258,1


1955 Seaborg
uMophobo molybdenum Mo 42 95,94 10280 2617 5560 1778 Scheele
iNaside sodium Na 11 22,99 970 97,8 892 1807 Davy
iNdalamhonyambi neodyn Nd 60 144,24 7000 1010 3127 1895 von Welsbach
iNkanyihwe neon Ne 10 20,18 0,84 -248,7 −248,7 -246,1 −246,1 1898 Ramsay
Travers
umNaphangana neptunium Np 93 237,05 20480 640 3902 1940 McMillan
Abelson
INimbi nickel Ni 28 58,69 8910 1453 2732 1751 Cronstedt
iNobo niobium Nb 41 92,91 8580 2468 4927 1801 Hatchet
iNihwe nitrogen N 7 14,01 1,170 -209,9 −209,9 -195,8 −195,8 1771 Scheele
iNombi nobelium No 102 259,10


1958 Seaborg
umOsisivu osmium Os 76 190,2 22590 3045 5027 1803 Tennant
iMpanda palladium Pd 46 106,42 12020 1552 3140 1803 Wollaston
iPholoba phosphorus P 15 30,97 1820 44 280 1669 Brand
iKhazi platinium Pt 78 195,08 21450 1772 3827 1557 Scaliger
iMpulu plutonium Pu 94 244,06 19740 641 3327 1940 Seaborg
imPosumu polonium Po 84 208,98 9200 254 962 1898 Marie Curie
umPhahlazambi praseodymium Pr 59 140,91 6480 931 3212 1895 von Welsbach
uMphomethimbi promethium Pm 61 146,92 7220 1080 2730 1945 Marinsky
uMphacagu protactinium Pa 91 231,04 15370 1554 4030 1917 Fajans
Hahn,
Meitner
ISigidi mercury Hg 80 200,59 13550 -038,9 −38,9 356,6 zamani (?)
uMsebembi radium Ra 88 226,03 5500 700 1140 1898 Marie und
Pierre Curie
uMlahwe radon Rn 86 222,02 9,23 -071 −71 -061,8 −61,8 1900 Dorn
uMlenembi rhenium Re 75 186,21 21030 3180 5627 1925 Noddack,
Tacke,
Berg
uLundu rhodium Rh 45 102,91 12410 1966 3727 1803 Wollaston
iLugambi Rentgenium Rg 111 272


1994 GSI
ILubimbo Rubidium Rb 37 85,45 1530 39 688 1861 Bunsen,
Kirchhoff
iSalanqwali Ruthenium Ru 44 101,07 12450 2310 3900 1844 Claus
umLefelambi Rutherfordium Rf 104 261,11


1964/69 Ghiorso
umSambi Samarium Sm 62 150,36 7540 1072 1778 1879 Lecoq de Boisbaudran
isOhwe oxygen O 8 16,00 1,33 -218,4 −218,4 -182,9 −182,9 1774 Priestley,
Scheele
iScambi scandium Sc 21 44,96 2990 1539 2832 1879 Nilson
IsiBabuli (Isalfa) sulfur S 16 32,07 2060 113 444,7 zamani (?)
iSigamchibi seaborgium Sg 106 263,12


1974 Oganessian
iSewezi Selenium Se 34 78,96 4820 217 685 1817 Berzelius
iCwebe silver Ag 47 107,87 10490 961,9 2212 zamani (?)
iSiphemba silicon Si 14 28,09 2330 1410 2355 1824 Berzelius
isiThanambi tin Sn 50 118,71 7290 232 2270 zamani (?)
iSolombi strontium Sr 38 87,62 2630 769 1384 1798 Klaproth
umThulumbi tantalum Ta 73 180,95 16680 2996 5425 1802 Ekeberg
umThanyambi technetium Tc 43 98,91 11490 2172 5030 1937 Segrè
inTehla tellurium Te 52 127,6 6250 449,6 990 1782 von Reichenstein
umThabathofi terbium Tb 65 158,93 8250 1360 3041 1843 Mosander
umThohla thallium Tl 81 204,38 11850 303,6 1457 1861 Crookes
isiThomsizi thorium Th 90 232,04 11720 1750 4787 1829 Berzelius
umThuthumbi thulium Tm 69 168,93 9320 1545 1727 1879 Cleve
isinTsazayiya titanium Ti 22 47,88 4510 1660 3260 1791 Gregor,
Klaproth
iChusinimbi Copernicium Uub 112 277


1996 GSI
iLivambi Livermorium Uuh 116 289


2000 JINR
IsOgambi oganesson Uuo 118 293


2006 JINR
uMcombi Moscovium Uup 115 288


2006 JINR
umFelombi flerovium Uuq 114 289


1999 JINR
umNihombi nihonium Uut 113 287


2006 JINR
iShaqantuva uranium U 92 238,03 18970 1132,4 3818 1789 Klaproth
uVathofi vanadium V 23 50,94 6090 1890 3380 1801 del Río
umZithowe tungsten W 74 183,85 19260 3407 5927 1783 Fausto und Juan
de Elhuyar
umYabambi ytterbium Yb 70 173,04 6970 824 1193 1878 de Marignac
umYambi yttrium Y 39 88,91 4470 1523 3337 1794 Gadolin
iZethe zinc Zn 30 65,39 7140 419,6 907 zamani (?)
iXhwe xenon Xe 54 131,29 4,49 -111,9 −111,9 -107,0 −107 1898 Ramsay,
Travers
iZambedu zirconium Zr 40 91,22 6510 1852 4377 1789 Klaproth